Category Archives: 2. Yoga

Karma Yoga

Karma Yoga is the path of action. It is a means of preparing oneself for the attainment of moska, self-realization, which is the final goal of life in Hindu tradition (Rao 45). The concept of Karma Yoga has long been acknowledged in Hinduism, but it was not until the emergence of the Bhagavad Gita, a text dealing with the concepts of religion within one’s daily life, that it was viewed as a path toward self-realization. The Bhagavad Gita is based upon a scene in the epic Mahabharata, in which Arjuna is faced with the dilemma of obeying his dharmic duty to fight his cousins, the Kauravas, for rulership of the kingdom, or to ignore dharma, and renounce into a peaceful life, in which he may strive for moksa. Krsna, who identifies himself as the manifestation of god, advises Arjuna to enter battle (see Rodrigues 227-236). Traditionally, moksa was cultivated in the final stages of life, in which one renounces their life within society, to live as a forrest-dweller and samnyasin (see Rodrigues 148-159). This conflict, to choose between a life within a society or a life in which one may become liberated, is resolved in the Gita. The Gita teaches of there being more than one path to reaching the Absolute, the God-head, to attaining moksa (Sivaraman 188). Krsna teaches Arjuna of three paths to liberation: Jnana Yoga, the path of trancedental knowledge, Bhakti Yoga, the path of loving devotion, and Karma Yoga, the path of action. These paths may be undertaken by a person at any stage in life; therefore the Gita teaches of cultivating a renouncer attitude, without being a renouncer. Transforming the notions of karma and yoga, the Bhagavad Gita presents the notion of niskama karma, acting without interest or desire in the results of one’s actions, and applies it to yoga as a path of spiritual development, preparing an individual for pursuing moksa (Rao 48). The teachings of Karma Yoga are inspirational to ways of life. One exemplifier of such inspiration is Mahatma Gandhi, a political activist responsible for transforming both Indian and African societies (see Rodrigues 252-253). Karma Yoga is more than a path preparing one for moksa, it is a way of life both for individuals, as well as society.

Karma, in its original sense, is the “law” of cause and effect (Sivaraman 181). It is the notion that every action that one takes in the world, both of physical (act) or mental (thoughts, feelings) nature, leaves an impression on both the cosmic and human realms of the world and thus bears a consequence or result (Sivaraman 181). Karmic consequences, good or bad, are attached to the individual, and therefore determine their current, and future conditions (Sivaraman 181). Therefore, karma refers to the performance of deeds, which include specific caste duties, sacrifices and rituals that maintain the order of the world. The Hindu concept of spiritual re-birth lies within karma, as those who possess good karma may be subjected to a better rebirth, which includes being re-born into a higher caste (Sivaraman 181). Therefore, the original concept of karma suggests that human beings are attached to life in the world, and so, should act in a manner reflective of their desire to live a content life, and improve their place of re-birth (Sivaraman 181).

The notion of karma was reformed through the Bhagavad Gita. Karma refers to the performance of actions as a result of a motive, which is either egoistic or nonegoistic. Such actions do not bear consequences on the individual, as the result of any action is determined, and produced by god, and thus should be attributed to god (Singr 56). According to the Gita, it matters not what results come of any action, what matters is the motive behind each action (Sighr 71). Niskama karma, acting in the world disinterested in the results of such actions, and without desire for certain outcomes, is the reformed karma of the Bhagavad Gita (Rao 48). Embracing niskama karma in life while examining the motives behind each action one takes constitutes Karma Yoga (Singr 71).

Hindu philosohpy, specifically Sankhya philosphy, speaks of the dualistic nature of reality. Reality is composed of two entities: Purusa (the self) and Prakrti (the non-self) (see Rodrigues). Purusa is the soul within beings, and represents truth. Prakrti, on the other hand, is a force, it is our nature. Prakrti manifests as the buddhi (intellect), ahankara (ego) and manas (inner feelings of the heart and mind) of a being. According to the Gita, Prakrti is responsible for all action, while Purusa is unaffected by all that takes place (Singr 46). Ignorance is said to be the cause of all sorrow, and its force is bestowed upon a being when they identify themselves as the doer of action. Attaching actions, and results to the self feeds the ego self, motivating future actions and causes suffering when results of an action are un-agreeable (Edgerton 165). Ignorance binds the soul to the physical being, and blinds a person from seeing truth, from discriminating between Prakrti and Purusa. Moksa is thus, unattainable while in a state of ignorance (Singr 118). Karma Yoga allows a person to overcome ignorance through the purification of the mind (Rao 46).

Karma Yoga is the “discipline of detached activity” (Singr 71). Action is seen as inescapable, it is in the nature (prakrti) of beings to act helplessly, but it is in their power to control such actions (Deutsch 39). Prakrti is composed of three gunas (elements): rajas (passion), sattva (illuminous) and tammas (obstruction). The gunas are the controlling force over all action. Rajas, as the Gita teaches, is the “enemy”, as passion is thought to masque knowledge. Manas and buddhi, the mind and the understanding of a being, are impacted by rajas, as passion becomes internalized and seen as stemming from the self (Deutsch 39). In the epic, Mahabharata, Krsna teaches Arjuna that the mind is greater than the senses, reason is greater than the mind, and it is the being himself who is greater than reason (Deutsch 39). Through the practice of Karma Yoga, a person becomes able to examine and conceptualize the nature of action, non-action and wrong action, beginning to work at understanding the “way of action” (Deutsch 39). A being is seen as detached when they are able to truly discriminate the soul from the gunas of prakrti, understanding its separation from action (Singr 66).

The path of Karma Yoga is followed physically through detached action within the world, and mentally through the conditioning of the mind, appreciating the nature of action and the power within oneself to control the forces of prakrti. Yajna (sacrifice), is the technique used within Karma Yoga to lead one towards self-realization (Deutsch 163). The followers of Karma Yoga give up their lower self, their ego self containing desires and attachments, in light of their higher, spiritual self, their soul (Deutsch 164). The being is sacrificed for the soul. When a person chooses to follow the path of action they must concentrate their attention on the divine, their actions are expressions of the divine power that lies within their being. The actions a person takes should be selfless, having no underlying desire, not even the desire to achieve moska (Singr 103). Yajna is performed by taking selfless actions within the world, sacrificing the ego-self, as a being redirects involvement in its actions away from the results and toward their spirit (Singr 103).

The path of Karma Yoga leads a being through four stages of karma. Initially, karma influences the actions one takes for selfish reasons, such as desires and attachments. The actions begin to be motivated from the being’s enlightened desire to know their true self. Next, as one discovers the power of their own being, actions are determined by their personal dharmic law. Finally, actions are taken for the goodness of the action, they are disinterested and are the essence of a being’s true self (Singr 74). The stages of karma are steps in cultivating the essence of Karma Yoga. Through Karma Yoga, a being purifies their mind, and prepares itself to enter the path of knowledge (Rao 50).

Acting for the social good is an essential characteristic of Karma Yoga. The emergence of the path of action has led to the development of many social programs such as Rama krishna mission hospitals, as well revolutions within society (see Rodrigues 251-252). Mahatma Gandhi was a political activist who encompassed the essence of Karma Yoga. Gandhi’s life was characterized by detached action, for the benefit of others and for society. As the reality of social injustice came to his awareness, Gandhi set out on a journey to evoke change. Basing his life on the notion of niskama karma, and karma yoga, Gandhi created the concept of satyagraha (holding fast to the truth), and applied this to political activism (Cherian 86). Mahatma Gandhi reformed societies of South Africa and India through the concept of Karma Yoga, taking action for just causes without being concerned of the consequences such action might relay on an individual. It is through Gandhi’s active, non-violent resistance to social injustice that such societies began to change (Cherian 86).

The path of action purifies the mind of a being, and in so prepares it for attaining the transcendental knowledge characteristic of moksa (Rao 50). Karma Yoga can be adopted at any stage in life, and with so, can be viewed as a lifelong journey toward spiritual development, and ultimately the journey toward moksa. To embrace the path of Karma Yoga, one must take actions in the world, despite their results, and examine these actions with respect to their underlying motive and their nature, attributing the results of such actions as determined by god (Singr 63). To practice this path of action, one must sacrifice their ego-self, and focus their involvement in action on their true-self (Singr 73). Complete detachment from the results of action is the goal of Karma Yoga (Rao 49).

References and Further Recommended Readings

______ (1944) The Bhagavad Gita. Trans. Franklin Edgerton. Ed. Walter E. Clark. New York: Harvard UP.

______ (1968) The Bhagavad Gita. Trans. Elliot Deutsch. Canada: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada Limited.

_______ (2003) Hindu Spirituality: Volume Two. Ed. K.R. Sundararajan and Brithika Mukerji. India: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Ltd.

Cherian, Kenneth M (1984) The Life of Mahatma Gandhi: Book Review. Journal of Religious Thought 40.2: 86-90.

Rao, P (1992) The place of Morality in Karma Yoga. Darshana International 32.4: 45-50.

Rodriques, Hillary (2006) Hinduism: The e-Book. Journal of Buddhist Ethics Online Books Ltd.

Singh, Balbir (1981) Karma-Yoga. New Jersey: Humanities Press Inc.

Sivaraman, Krishna (1989) Hindu Spirituality. New York: Crossroad Publishing Company.

Related Research Topics

Karma

Yoga

Bhakti Yoga

Jnana Yoga

Mahatma Gandhi

Dharma, Dharmic Duties

The Bhagavad Gita

The Mahabharata

Yajna Rituals

Sankya Philosophy

The Stages and Goals of Life in Hinduism

Moksa

Krsna

Websites Related to Topic

http://www.sanatansociety.org/yoga_and_meditation/karma_yoga.htm

http://hinduism.iskcon.com/practice/index.htm

http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/index.htm

http://infotree.library.ohiou.edu/byform:general/humanities/religion/hinduism/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karma_Yoga

http://www.ciolek.com/WWWVLPages/BuddhPages/OtherRelig.html

Article written by Patricia Eyolfson (Spring 2008) who is solely responsible for its content.

Kundalini Yoga

Although Tantric literature has gained popularity throughout the world, Kundalini Yoga remains one of the most mysterious subjects within Hinduism. Perhaps this is because it is one of the most radical forms of worship in Hinduism, and to work with Kundalini is to work with the occult.

Kundalini is the name of the serpent energy that Tantric physiological models say is located in the base of the human body. When utilized properly, one can use this energy to achieve moksa and reach levels of indescribable bliss. However, teachers of this approach warn that it is a grave mistake to attempt to reach these goals without proper guidance, as this may lead to complete moral and spiritual degeneration (Kapoor et al 1074).

Kundalini is envisioned as a serpent that lies dormant in most people throughout their lives, idly coiled around herself three and a half times. The serpent occupies a point in the body lying two fingers above the rectum and two below the generative organs, the location of muladhara plexus. (Kapoor et al 1074). However, it is important to note that the serpent lies not in the physical body, but rather in what is known as the “subtle body.” She, for Kundalini is also considered to be a goddess, rests there before being awakened, and scholars differ in their opinions on where she ends up after her awakening. Some say that after reaching the highest point in the body, she stays there permanently, although others argue that she returns to her base at the muladhara plexus (Kapoor et al 1074).

The female nature of the serpent is important, as Kundalini is regarded as Sakti manifested as the serpent energy. Kundalini at the muladhara is regarded by Tantrics as the whole primordial Sakti (Woodroffe 306). Sakti is the female principle, perceived as primordial force, a causal matrix which spews out matter and endows it with forms, colours, and other attributes, called prakrti (Fic 28-9). Sakti is said to both create and obscure the material universe, also known as maya (Fic 29).

The process to moksa through Kundalini begins with consultation with a guru who has been through the process before. With an understanding of the aspirant’s mental and intellectual capabilities, the guru should be able to tell from experience whether it is possible for him or her to succeed in this task (Woodroffe 25). It is said that for every thousand individuals who embark on this path, only one will succeed (Woodroffe 26).

Before being able to understand the process of awakening Kundalini, though, one must understand the concept of the cakras. At various locations of the subtle body, there are six centres of operation, each depicted as a lotus flower with a different number of petals. These centres are: muladhara, as mentioned above; svadisthana, located around the generative organs; manipura, around the navel region; anahata, the region around the heart; visuddha, the region connecting the spinal cord and lower portion of the medulla oblongata; and ajna, located between the eyebrows (Bhattacharyya 144). Above all of these lies the sahasrara, known as the cakracita, or “beyond cakra” (Thakur 106). This lies on the top of the cerebral part of the brain. Each cakra and cakracita is depicted as a lotus flower with a different number of petals. The numbers are, respectively, four, six, ten, twelve, sixteen, two, and the sahasrara having 1000 (Thakur 106). The total of the number of petals (excluding the sahasrara) is 50 – the number of characters in the Sanskrit alphabet. It is said that Sakti creates the world by singing her song using all 50 characters, and after propagating the world, rests in the individual’s muladhara cakra (Stutley 260).

Another important concept in this yoga is the asana. Simply put, asana means position or posture. However, there is much more to it than that. 84 asanas are mentioned in various works, but there are believed to be 8 400 000, of which only 84 are known to human beings (Stutley 21). One important idea is that it is essential in asanas is that all extremities of the limbs must be pressed together to keep an uninterrupted flow of life energy by ensuring the energy radiated by nerves in fingers and toes is kept in a closed circuit and not wasted (Stutley 21).

One last concept important to understanding the awakening process is prana. Prana is the “vital energy” that is all around us and in the air we breathe. Prana in the body of the individual is just part of the “Universal Breath” (Woodroffe 199). The yogi aspiring to awaken Kundalini must grab hold of prana in the process.

To utilize the energy of Kundalini, one must get her to pierce all six cakras and rest above them at the sahasrara. This is to be done through a complex process, focusing mainly on meditation under the supervision of a guru. There is no simple, generally accepted set of rules for the process of awakening the energy, but all processes tend to be very similar. One method suggests that the yogi should fill the body with prana by breathing in slowly, and eventually hold the breath. Then, he or she should relax to lower the heart rate, move the prana downwards, contract the anus and direct prana through a semicircular motion, left to right around the muladhara, all while slowly saying a secret bija-mantra. Doing this will warm up and stir Kundalini (Kapoor et al 1074).

Another process is much simpler, but the yogi must have a higher level of expertise to do it. The yogi is to take up a specific asana as assigned by a guru. The breath is to be held by curling the tongue to the back of the throat, and then the sexual energy is to be aroused. This alone is enough to awaken Kundalini, since the sexual energy dwells near the muladhara cakra (Stutley 156).

To try and hasten the process, some tantric schools incorporate sexual practices with some asanas to achieve simultaneous immobility of breath, thought, and semen (Stutley 156).

Once she is awakened, Kundalini can be directed up the central column through nerves that lie in the subtle body. These nerves are known as nadi, and conduct prana through the body (Woodroffe 109). There is no confirmed number of nadis since the Bhuta-Suddhi Tantra speaks of 72 000, the Prapancasara of 300 000, and the Siva-Samhita of 350 000, but the most commonly agreed upon number is 72 000 (Woodroffe 110). There are fourteen main nadis, but in Kundalini Yoga, only three are really emphasized: ida, pingala, and susumna. Ida and pingala meander upwards through the body transporting prana, and susumna goes straight up the body and is the channel through which Kundalini flows. All three of these nadis meet at the cakras as they travel upwards through the body (Woodroffe 151). Ida is a white, feminine nerve beginning on the left side of the spinal cord and ending in the left nostril and is a symbol of the moon (Bhattacharyya 70). Pingala, on the other hand, begins on the right side of the spinal cord and ends in the right nostril. It symbolizes the waking state and leads individuals to violent actions (Bhattacharyya 123).

As Kundalini moves upward through the susumna, it opens up a myriad of nadi at every cakra it pierces for prana to flow through. It starts with the muladhara cakra, which is inverted prior to Kundalini’s awakening and turns upright after. The cakra is the location of the prthvi-tattva, meaning element of solidity, and is the grossest form of manifest energy (Thakur 159). The second cakra is the svadisthana cakra, which translates to “own abode of Sakti” (Woodroffe 118). The next cakra up, the manipura cakra, also known as the jewel city, is so called because the lotus is said to be as lustrous as a gem (Woodroffe 119). This cakra is the location of the teja-tattva, meaning element of heat (Thakur 159). When Kundalini reaches the anahata cakra, the yogi can supposedly hear the anahata-sabda, or the “sound which comes without the striking of any two things together” (Woodroffe 120). The visuddha cakra is the location where the biological self is purified by a vision of the true self, or atman (Thakur 160). Finally Kundalini reaches the ajna cakra, which provides the yogi with supernatural powers, or siddhi (Woodroffe 127). Finally the serpent reaches her ultimate destination: the sahasrara, the location where the serpent causes the yogi to reach moksa.

Physical effects also take place at each of the cakras once they are pierced by the serpent. These effects are called nimitta, meaning, literally, “signs” (Kapoor et al 1074). These signs are profuse sweating, an increase in body temperature, and a stinging sensation (Kapoor et al 1074). Some yogis say that as the energy moves up, all the cakras below return to a cold temperature, even described as “corpse-like” (Stutley 158).

Once piercing all six cakras (this is known as the sat-cakra-bheda), the Kundalini energy reaches the sahasrara, her ultimate destination. It is said that on the center of the sahasrara lotus shines the full moon, within which rests a triangle of lightning containing the most secret bindu. All gods worship this hidden bindu and it is said to be the basis of moksa (Thakur 160-61). Some yogis maintain, however, that after reaching the sahasrara, the energy returns to the muladhara (Fic 34). Some also say that Kundalini needs to pierce only three cakras, the muladhara, anahata, and ajna, to reach the sahasrara (Kapoor et al 1074). There are many different descriptions of the events that take place once Kundalini reaches the sahasrara. Some describe it as a very simple experience, whereby the yogi reaches a full understanding of the self, then returns to his or her normal life and repeats the procedure often to maintain control of the energy (Fic 36). Others describe a much more complex occurrence starting with the yogi perceiving the “inner sounds” – sounds that start like a roaring ocean, becoming progressively quieter until they are like a bee, and finally the nada, or “unmanifested” sound (Kapoor et al 1074). Often, the yogi is said to see a taraka; that is, a small, intensely bright light resting between and in front of the eyebrows (Bharati 265).

Although the entire process of using Kundalini to achieve moksa in this lifetime may seem relatively simple and straightforward, the yoga is not something to be toyed around with. Less documented than the theory and practice of this yoga are the potential negative consequences. Two of the main fears are that increased energy in the lower region will cause an insatiable sexual desire, and that awakening Kundalini will lead to moral and mental instability (White et al 460). The latter fear may become a reality for someone who suddenly awakens Kundalini, due to the increase in energy flow in the nervous system (White et al 198). Often, individuals who have improperly awakened Kundalini report symptoms such as short or long-term disorientation, severe anxiety, and a general mental incapacity (White et al 205-6).

It is important to keep these ideas in mind when considering Kundalini Yoga as a means to moksa, but they should not be discouraging as it is still a fascinating subject. Therefore, although the serpent energy is to be revered, with caution, a thorough knowledge of the subject, and the guidance of a guru, one can certainly consider the path of Kundalini for their own liberation.


References and further Recommended Reading

Bhattacharyaa, Narenda Nath (1990) A Glossary of Indian Religious Terms and Concepts. Delhi: South Asian Publications.

Bharati, Agehananda (1975) The Tantric Tradition. New York: Samuel Weiser Inc.

Fic, Victor M. (2003) The Tantra: its Origin, Theories, Art, and Diffusion from India to Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia, China, Japan, and Indonesia. Delhi: Shakti Malik / Abhinav Publications

Kapoor, Subodh et al (1999) Encyclopedia of Hinduism vol. 3. Delhi: Cosmo Publications.

Rodrigues, Hillary P. (2005) Hinduism: the e-book: an Online Introduction. Journal of Buddhist Ethics Online Books.

Stutley, Margaret (2002) A Dictionary of Hinduism. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Thakur, Dr. Manoj K (2001) The Tantras: An Introductory Outline. Delhi: Book Land Publishing.

White, John et al (1979) Kundalini, Evolution and Enlightenment. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books.

Woodroffe, Sir John (1978) The Serpent Power. Madras: Ganesh and Co. Publishing.

Related Topics for Further Investigation

Cakras

Sahasrara

Tantra

Sakti

Yoga

Moksa

Asanas

Prana

Nadi

Noteworthy Websites Related to the Topic

http://www.sivanandadlshq.org/download/kundalini.htm#_VPID_59

http://www.yoga-age.com/modern/kun1.html

http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/practices/kundalini_yoga.htm

http://www.sivanandadlshq.org/download/kundalini.htm

http://www.cit-sakti.com/index.htm

Written by Urvil Thakor (Spring 2006), who is solely responsible for its content.

Pranayama

What Is Pranayama?

Pranayama is the fourth limb of Patanjali’s Raja Yoga, which was first outlined in his Yoga Sutras. It is also an important part of Hindu asceticism and a vital part of any yoga practice. Prana is the vital energy (breath) in all of us; pranayama is the control of that vital energy. Control of the breath means refusing to breathe as people normally do. Under normal circumstances, breath is non-rhythmic and shallow. However, in pranayama, the breath is deep, even, and controlled by the practitioner (Eliade 55). “A Yogi measures the span of his life not by the number of years but by the number of breaths. One can take in only a certain amount of energy or prana from the air along with each breath. The vital capacity is measured by the greatest amount of air one can inhale after the deepest possible exhalation (Sivananda 269).

Early Textual References

Yoga, one of the orthodox systems of Hindu philosophy, is the psychophysical system of attaining union with Absolute Reality (Brahman). As an integral part of the Hindu philosophy, yoga is mentioned in many influential Hindu texts. Pranayama is identified in the Rg Veda with Brahma as inhalation, Visnu as suspension of the breath, and Rudra as exhalation. In the Upanisads, there is the mention of “obtaining “ecstasy” through concentration on sounds [and] such concentration is acquired only by the application of yogic technique (asana, pranayama, etc.) (Eliade 133) In the Bhagavad Gita also mentions yoga, presenting it as a practical means for attaining moksa through meditation (Eliade 159n).

Preparation

One of the most important aspects of the practice of pranayama is said to be the preparation for practice. It is said that one must be firmly grounded in asanas, as well as preparing the body by purifying it through the following six kriyas (Sivananda 292). First, one must complete dhauti, or cleansing the digestive track. Then the bowels are cleansed through basti and the sinuses through neti. The eyes and mind are cleansed through steady gazing or trataka. Nauli cleanses abdominal churning which eliminates constipation and increases digestive fire. Kapalabhati, which is heavy, fast breathing, destroys excess phlegm.

There are other preliminary considerations for practice. These include a place that is pleasant, quiet, beautiful, private, where there are no disturbances or distractions. The time of day pranayama is practiced is also important, it is best to practice in the spring or fall. In the summer season, the cool early morning hours are the best time of day. The food that the body consumes is also considered and important consideration. Light, moderate, substantial and nutritious food – there are three categories of food which must be balanced. Sattvic foods (i.e., milk, fruit, cereals, butter, cheese, tomatoes, and spinach) make the mind pure. Rajasic foods (i.e., fish, eggs, meat) stimulate passion. Tamasic foods (i.e., beef, onions, garlic) make the mind lethargic and angry. The practice is best approached with passion and earnestness. It is said that the student must have a calm mind, faith in his Guru’s teachings, believe in God, live a life of moderation, and be eager to attain moksa. The final step of suggested preliminary preparation is the purification of the nadis which is done through alternate nostril breathing and creates harmony in the body (Sivananda 296-314):

Practice

After preparing physically with your kriyas and asanas, mental preparation can begin. The first part of practice is the three-part breath. First is puraka (inhalation), followed by rechaka (exhalation), and finally kumbhaka (retention). The time unit used to measure the breath is a matra, usually the syllable Om. It is also suggested that the suitable asanas for pranayama are padmasana, siddhasana, svastikasana, or samasana.

When first starting to practice pranayama, Sivananda recommends that you practice only puraka and rechaka, without kumbhaka for a month or two. Once comfortable with the slowing down of the breath, retention can be added. At first a ratio of 1:4:2 is recommended which gradually will be increased to 16:64:32 (377). This ratio refers to inhaling for one matra, retaining for four matra, and exhaling for two matra. The three types of pranayama discussed by Sivananda are inferior pranayama, which is 12 matras, middling pranayama, which is 24 matras, and superior pranayama, which consists of 32 matras. These numbers refer to the number of matras for inhalation only.

There is more than one way to practice pranayama. Sivananda outlines various exercises which include alternate nostril breathing, deep breathing exercises, pranayama during meditation, while walking and during savasana (deep relaxation of the muscles and nerves), and ujjayi pranayama (breathing while partially closing the glottis) to name a few.

Sivananda also identifies four stages that accompany pranayama practice. The first is arambha avastha, which is for the destruction of former sins and often consists of profuse perspiration that should be rubbed into the body with the hands. The second stage is ghata avastha, which is obtained through the regular practice of suppressing the breath. In order to pass through the ghata state one must constantly keep up their yogic practice. The third stage is parichaya avastha. “Through steady practice and concentrated thought the breath now pierces the Kundalini Shakti along with the Agni and enters the Sushumna uninterrupted” (328). The final stage of pranayama is nishpatti avastha, the state of consummation where all of the karmic seeds have been destroyed and the practitioner becomes immortal.

Goals

“The yogic practitioner seeks through a careful process of spiritual exercises to reach a state of “isolation”, of the complete separation of spirit and matter” (Embree 195). It is through practicing pranayama that this goal becomes attainable. The goal of pranayama is very much the same as the goal of yoga. There is a reciprocal relationship between breath and the mind. Once able to control the breath, one is able to control the mind and control of the mind allows control of the breath. If the mind and prana are both controlled, one becomes liberated from the rounds of births and deaths and attains immortality” (Sivananda, 268).

WORKS CITED

Eliade, Mircea (1958) Yoga: Immortality and Freedom. Trans. Willard R. Trask. New York: Pantheon Books

Embree, Ainslie T (ed.) (1972) The Hindu Tradition: Readings in Oriental Thought. New York: Vintage Books

Sivananda, Swami (1981) The Science of Yoga v. 4. Shivanandanagar, Dist. Tehri-Garhwal, U.P., India: Divine Life Society.

Further Reading

Iyengar, B.K.S. (1985) Light on Pranayama. New York:Crossroad

Rosen, Richard (2002) The Yoga of Breath: A Step-by-Step Guide to Pranayama. Boston: Shambhala.

Saraswrthi, Swami Satyanananda (2000) Asana Pranayama Mudra Bandha. New Delhi: Bihar School of Yoga.

Related Topics

Asceticism

Chakras

Hatha Yoga

Kundalini Yoga

Meditation

Raja Yoga, Yoga Sutras, Patanjali

Notable Websites

ABC of Yoga (2006) Yoga Breathing (Pranayama) – The Art of Yoga Breathing http://www.abc-of-yoga.com/pranayama/home.asp

Focal Point Yoga (2006) Pranayama http://www.focalpointyoga.com/pranayam.htm

Yoga Journal (2006) Prescriptions for Pranayama http://yogajournal.com/practice/673_1.cfm?ctsrc=blurb2

Written by Melissa Scullen (Spring 2006), who is solely responsible for its content.

Prana

One path to the attainment of liberation (moksa) is through the union of the body and the spirit, most commonly known as yoga. This is a mystical path en route to self-awareness, with the goal to achieve enlightenment. Within its tradition, there are several aspects to the practice of yoga. One specific characteristic is prana. Simply put, prana can be defined as vital energy flow within the body. Georg Feuerstein, one of the foremost teachers of yoga and yogic teachings, defines prana with the origins of the word: pra—“on, forth” and an—“to breathe,” thus denoting the “vital energy, life.” The image of prana was referenced in the Upanishads as “breath to life.” The name prana was given to the “vital breath” and by extension to the bodily inhaled air (Varenne 235). Prana is similar to the Chinese concept of chithe circulating life energy that in Chinese philosophy is thought to be inherent in all things. Several comparisons with nature are used in the description of prana. Prana is compared to a fire being formed into new life by every inhalation. The flame burns higher, devours the fuel [oxygen] brought in from the outside by air, and then expels the waste [ash] in the forms of exhaled air (Varenne 111). The rhythm of prana is comparable to the ebb and flow of tidal waves (Feuerstein and Miller 26). Furthermore, according to Professor H. Upadhyay, prana is like a knife which he carefully employs to operate on his own mind, to cut out the malicious thoughts and feelings in order to piece through to higher levels of consciousness (Feuerstein and Miller 112).

According to yogic teaching, at birth, we all receive the “vital breath” of prana and the function of respiration is to circulate it through the body. As human beings we need to breathe to survive making prana essential to our existence. Breath is not filled with oxygen, but the all sustaining life-force—prana (Feuerstein 236). Prana is a vital force of life energy which we constantly inhale as we breathe in. The complete withdrawal of prana from our body means death (Feuerstein and Miller 112). It can be said that sensations of hunger, thirst, hot, cold, etc. within the body could be understood as symptoms of prana. Moreover, all physical feelings that flow within the body might also be interpreted as evidence that prana is at work. The presence of prana is said to be what distinguishes a living body from a dead one. When a person dies, the prana, or life force, is thought to leave the body. Our bodies are seen to contain a complex network of channels (nadi) and valves (bandha) that allow prana to flow through the body. For yoga, prana (breath) represents life itself in its most concrete form (Varenne 111). “By means of regulation, control and restraint of prana, the yogi first gains mastery over the prana currents, then over his body.” For breathing in yoga, “there is always a connection between respiration and mental states,” (Eliade 69). Yoga brings about the unity of the senses, the mind, and the vital force—prana (Joshi 57). The breath is the essential maintainer of concentration and the heart of the yoga principle. As such in practice, if a yogi has attained complete mastery over the technique of breathing [he] succeeds in “seeing” the interior of his body (Varenne 208).

Contrary to the ancient Upanisadic belief that prana was breath within the being; Feuerstein takes a variation of the definition. In his book, Yoga and Beyond, he does not think that prana is mere breath, but the “spanda-sakti” (vibratory power) that penetrates the whole cosmos and every living being and even able to exercise influence on the mind (citta) (Feuerstein and Miller 26). This references a very profound union between prana and citta—vital energy and mind. Furthermore, texts such as the Yoga Sutra have not plainly expressed prana as breath. Prana can be seen as “more akin to vital force or life energy,” (Feuerstein and Miller 111-112). On a much more spiritual level prana is defined as, the cosmic breath, the rhythmic oscillation effective on all levels of conditioned existence (Feuerstein and Miller 26).

There are five subdivisions of prana connected with certain functions and distributions over certain regions of the body: prana, samana, apana, udana, and vyana. The particulars of these sectors are described within Vyasa’s commentary in the Yoga Sutra. Prana is located through the mouth and the nose, and its changeability continues as far as the heart. Samana is dispersed uniformly and fluctuates from the navel. Apana leads downward in the body and oscillates as far as the sole of the foot. Udana leads upwards in the body and fluctuates as far as the head. Vyana is encompassing through the entire body system.

From the Mahabharata:

The breath called prana, residing within the head and the heat that is there, cause all kinds of exertion. That prana is the living creature, the universal soul, the eternal Being, and the Mind, Intellect and Consciousness of all living creatures, as also all the objects of the senses. Thus the living creature is, in every respect, caused by prana to move about and exert. Then in consequence of the other breath called samana, every one of the senses is made to act as it does. The breath called apana, having recourse to the heat that is in the urethra and the abdominal intestines, moves, engaged in carrying out urine and feces. That single breath, which operates in these three, is called udana by those that are conversant with science. That breath, which operates, residing in all the joints of men’s bodies, is called vyana. There is heat in the bodies of living creatures which is circulated all over the system by the breath called samana.

(The Mahabharata Santi Parva, Section CLXXXIV)

Prana is associated with many entities and objects. One of the eight limbs of yoga is dependent on prana, pranayama. Pranayama is breath control and the “rejection to breathe like the general run of men…in an unrhythmic fashion,” (Eliade 69). Pranayama regulates the flow of prana through the channels (nadi) and valves (bandha) of the body. Regulating the breath then leads to the control of prana through the body. Through the evolution of human beings, we become tone deaf towards the “original rhythm” of the cosmos. Pranayama is used to “restore the primeval rhythm and cosmic harmony,” (Feuerstein and Miller 26). Prana is the cause of spiritual progress within the practice of pranayama (Varenne 158). The rhythm found in pranayama is divided in to three phases of prana: inhalation (puraka), exhalation (recaka), and the retention of air (kumbhaka) (Eliade 71-72). At the time of inhalation, the breath occupies internal space, which is said to be felt from the palms of the hands to the soles of the feet. At exhalation, the external space can be felt at the tip of the nose (Dasgupta 146). Also associated with prana (or life-energy) is the wind god Vayu. In the Vedic system Vayu is the master of life, inspirer of that breath or dynamic energy called prana. Vayu is seen as the “companion to the breath of life” (Feuerstein and Miller 110). All the vital and nervous activities of the human being fall within the definition of prana and belong to the domain of Vayu (Aurobindo 323). Prana is identified as the wind in the hymn XI.4 of the Atharva Veda: “Breath they call Matarisvan; breath is called the wind; in breath what has been and what will be, in breath is all established.”

Yoga is a traditional Hindu act towards the attainment of absolute liberation (moksa). On this journey towards liberation prana is an important aspect to the practice of yoga and to life itself. Prana aids in the achievement of total concentration within the yogic tradition. According to many texts and practices, prana is the essence of life and without it we are dead. Even though there are several meanings to prana, it can simply be said that it is the vital energy flow to life. Prana is essential to one of the eight limbs of yoga, breath control or pranayama. Without the proper utilization of prana, pranayama cannot be executed successfully. Furthermore, there are five subdivisions within prana, found throughout the body, which altogether function to bring prana to the highest power. But prana in its explicit form is most essential. To quote the Yoga Darshana Upanishad: “prana, like the sun, travels though the signs of the zodiac; each time you inhale, hold in your breath before expelling it.” Prana is found in every living being, but in order to have full control over it, it must be practiced with pranayama. These features together in formation with the other seven limbs of yoga are the quintessential model for the achievement of moksa.

REFERENCES

Dasgupta, Surendranath (1978) Yoga: As Philosophy and Religion. Delhi: Indological Publishers.

Eliade, Mircea (1976) Patanjali and Yoga. New York: Schocken Books.

Feuerstein, Georg and Jeanine Miller (1972) Yoga and Beyond: Essays in Indian Philosophy. New York: Schocken Books.

Feuerstein, Georg (1991) Sacred Paths: Essays on Wisdom, Love, and Mystical Realization. New York: Larson Publications.

Joshi, K.S., “On the Meaning of Yoga.” Philosophy East and West. Volume 15, Number 1, January 1965, pp. 53-64.

Varenne, Jean (1976) Yoga and the Hindu Tradition. London: The University of Chicago Press.

Further Readings

Feuerstein, Georg (1980) The Philosophy of Classical Yoga. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Feuerstein, George (1983) Self-realization of noble wisdom: The Lankavatara Sutra. California: Dawn Horse Press.

Feuerstein, Georg (2002) The Yoga Tradition: its history, literature, philosophy and practice. New Delhi: Bhavana Books

Pandit, B.N. (1997) Specific principles of Kashmir Saivism. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers

Singh, Shail Kumari (1983) Religious and moral philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Patna: Janaki Prakashan

Related Topics

Apana

Atharva Veda

Bandha

Citta

Georg Feuerstein

Kumbhaka

Moksa

Nadi

Pranayama

Puraka

Recaka

Samana

Spanda-sakti

Udana

Upanishads

Yoga

Yoga Darshana Upanishad

Yoga Sutras

Vayu

Vyana

Vyasa

Noteworthy websites related to the topic

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prana

http://www.hinduism.co.za/

http://www.kriyayoga.com/english/encyclopedia/pranayama.htm

http://www.yoga.net.au/

www.yogajournal.com/

http://www.allayurveda.com/glossary_p.htm

http://www.kheper.net/topics/Samkhya/pranas.htm

http://www.themystica.org/mystica/articles/p/prana.html

http://www.sacred-texts.com/tantra/maha/maha00.htm

http://www.metareligion.com/Esoterism/Theosophy.htm

Article written by Krista Epp (April 2006) who is solely responsible for its content.

Related Readings (On Yoga)

Aranya, Swami Hariharananda (1983) Yoga Philosophy of Patanjali. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Bernard, T. (1944) Hatha Yoga. New York: Samuel Weiser.

Connolly, Peter (2006) A Student’s Guide to the History and Philosophy of Yoga. London: Equinox.

Danélou, A. (1956) Yoga: The Method of Re-Integration. New York: University Books.

Eliade, Mircea (1973) Yoga: Immortality and Freedom. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Feuerstein, Georg (1979) The Yoga-sutra of Patanjali. Reprint. Rochester: Inner Traditions International, 1989.

Miller, Barbara S. (trans.) (1996) Yoga, Discipline of Freedom: The Yoga Sutra Attributed to Patanjali. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Rukmani, T. S. (1981) Yogavarttika of Vijnabhiksu, 4 vols. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Svatmarama (1972) The Hathayogapradipika. Madras: The Adyar Library Research Centre.

Taimni, I. K. (1972) The Science of Yoga. Wheaton: Theosophical Publishing House.

Varenne, Jean (1976) Yoga and the Hindu Tradition. Derek Coltman (trans.) Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Werner, K. “Yoga and the Rg Veda: An Interpretation of the Kesin Hymn,” Religious Studies, 13 (1976), 289-293.

_____ (ed.) (1989) The Yogi and the Mystic. London: Curzon Press.

Woods, J. H (1914) The Yoga-System of Patanjali. Cambridge, MA. Harvard Oriental Series XVIII.

The Yogas of The Bhagavad Gita

The practice of Yoga is a spiritual tradition in which millions of people worldwide have studied for many years. The word “Yoga” is derived from the Sanskrit root “yuj” meaning “to join” or “to yoke” (McCartney 2). Modern Yoga which is practiced in the West is mainly thought of as postures and exercises aimed at keeping the body fit. This type of Yoga, also known as Hatha Yoga, involves proper breathing and meditation. Besides Hatha Yoga, many other types exist not only to keep the body fit but also to keep the mind fit spiritually. This includes a variety of actions devoted to each individual practice of Yoga involving techniques such as meditation and concentration to train the mind. The concept of meditation involves a method by which a person is able to stop all the turnings (vrtti) of thought (citta) one has. By detaching oneself from all thoughts, there is a shift from an external focus of attention to an inner one (Feuerstein 1991:187). Orthodox Hinduism holds that Yoga is more than just postures and exercise; its real power is said to be in training the mind to achieve moksa. Moksa can be understood as spiritual liberation or an ultimate state of realization (Singh 150). With knowledge of the transcendental Reality, we can answer some basic questions of human existence: Who am I? Where do I go? Why am I here? What must I do? Hinduism ideals suggest that without answers to these questions, one is merely adrift (Feuerstein 2003:15). Through proper practice one is believed to be closer to God and knowledgeable of the true nature of reality.

The Bhagavad-Gita or “Song of God,” a sacred text of Hindu philosophy, seems to have a large influence on Yoga. Included in The Bhagavad Gita is a conversation that took place between Krsna and Arjuna on the battlefield in the epic The Mahabharata. There, Arjuna struggles over killing his family and friends. Krsna, being a great friend and mentor, consoles Arjuna with his transcendental teachings on human nature and the purpose of life. Among these teachings, Krsna outlines three Yogic paths. These are Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga and Bhakti Yoga.

Karma Yoga

Karma Yoga is the Yoga of action. This Yoga focuses on self-less deeds or sacrifice undertaken for the sake of the Supreme and to purify the heart. According to a famous practitioner, Sri Chinmoy, Karma Yoga does not focus on the result of actions or the thought of gain by performing particular actions (Sri Chinmoy 382). With this immunity to the reactive and negative consequences of actions, it is believed that one can better manage mental associations. In this sense, one is thought to be unselfish and can therefore achieve moksa. It is commonly stated that being a Karma Yogi is not an easy endeavour. The process of working without a sense of attachment is a difficult task. But it seems that with patience and determination, it becomes easier and more pleasant to do.

Karma itself teaches that nothing happens by accident. It is said that it is either the outcome of a previous cause or it is the cause of a later effect. This is also why Karma Yoga is sometimes referred to as “cause and effect” Yoga (McCartney 114). Humans are free to act as they like, but it is the responsibility the way in which they act that is theirs (Singh 73). It is within the laws of Karma that states that nothing happens to a man/woman except insofar as it is the result of his/her own deed (Singh 73). We can also see Karma Yoga being practiced whenever the action being performed is for the benefit of others. Therefore, performing any task that is not for your benefit, such as cleaning up in a temple, is believed to be a part of Karma Yoga. “He whose understanding is unattached everywhere, who has subdued his self and from whom desire has fled — he comes through renunciation to the supreme state transcending all work” (Radhakrishnan and Moore 161). For the Karma Yogi, work is primarily for service and not for means of economic survival or psychic gratification (Feuerstein 1991:81). It is commonly understood that Karma Yogis work to protect and nurture everyone, including nonhuman beings. It has been said that a Karma Yogi does not succumb to failure, nor does he/she gloat on success. Karma Yogis do not forget or ignore the world but rather live for the world. In this view, one can be understood to have an ongoing sense of worldly struggles, but is never totally overcome by them. Everyone is forced to act in some way by Nature, but he who can do this selflessly and without attachment can attain inner wholeness and be a true Karma Yogi (Feuerstein 1996:20).

It is believed that selfless action comes before both Bhakti Yoga (love) and Jnana Yoga (knowledge) (Feuerstein 1991:82). In this sense, it seems logical for anyone who is interested in practicing and learning ancient techniques of Yoga, to start with Karma Yoga so as to learn self-realization first.

Jnana Yoga

Jnana Yoga is the Yoga of Knowledge. This knowledge is of the Self, the Nature of God, the Universe and their mutual relationships (McCartney 191). It is thought that with this knowledge, the true realization of Brahman can be achieved. The Jnana Yogi feels that it is through the mind that this goal will be attained. Yogic martyrs claim that fulfillment of the mind is of supreme importance. As McCartney recalls, a person can stand on a cliff and see blue waves rolling up the beach and hear large waves breaking upon the sands and be filled with pure exhilaration by the experience. We would also be able to see the same pictures through a camera, or hear the same sounds from a microphone. It is the presence of exhilaration that would be missing from the latter experience. This means that something exists in humans which is absent in mechanical processes (cameras and microphones).

It is commonly stated that Jnana Yoga is the abolition of the concept dualism, which eventually leads to ones realization of the unity of the individual self with the Supreme Self (Sri Swami Sivananda 137). It is the process that converts the simple acts of seeing and hearing into an experience that is “I,” or the absolute true self and knowledge. Jnana Yoga has been thought of as being the “shortest and steepest” path to God, and also the most difficult one (McCartney 193). The process of discrimination between real & unreal and eternal & temporal is not easy. It is a long and difficult path, but can be very rewarding. One example in discriminating between reality and illusions would be to look at a piece of cloth. Cloth is made of thread. In the beginning the piece of cloth was thread and in the end, all that would be left of the cloth is thread. So in the end, a Jnana Yogi would see cloth as an illusion and only the thread as being real. Jnana Yogis do not want to escape life or death because they know that there is no such escape. It seems there is only escape of such ignorance into Knowledge and Light (Sri Chinmoy 383). Before practicing and mastering Jnana Yoga one must be involved in the lessons of other Yogic paths. This is beneficial because the acts of selflessness and strength of body and mind should be achieved before Jnana Yoga can be understood.

One modern Hindu sage, Ramana Maharsi, demonstrates the Jnana Yoga path. He taught a certain form of self-inquiry, of self-pondering inquiry, where one focuses on the I-thought and its source. This technique of inquiry is also known as vicara. This an adamant search in pursuit of the question “Who am I?”

Bhakti Yoga

Bhakti Yoga is simply service in Love and Devotion to God. It is the practice of Karma Yoga that will lead a person directly to Bhakti Yoga. It is known as the Yoga of Love and Devotion because of ones surrender completely to God. The Bhakti worshipper (Bhakta) worships a personal God. There is no concern of the “Absolute” or Brahman as in the other Yogas discussed thus far. Bhakti Yoga is monotheistic in that one believes in one, single, universal, all-encompassing God. Mainly, this has been devoted to the worship of Siva or Visnu (McCartney 150). The Bhagavad Gita was the first Hindu text to depict the Bhakti Yoga path. Depicted in the Bhagavad Gita, Krsna is seen as the object of love and devotion, hence the rise of Bhakti Yoga.

In Bhakti Yoga, one practices meditation by imagining his/her God being right there with them and by sharing their deepest thoughts and feelings one can be brought closer to their God. The Bhakta has a large commitment because through prayer, worship and rituals, one is being surrendered solely to God. This can be seen by an outsider as devotion and love to one’s parent or lover. “Through all his senses he realizes it as if it were a sensuous delight; with his heart and soul he feels it as a spiritual intoxication of joy.” (Feuerstein 1996:22). There are many aspects which illustrate the Yoga of Devotion. The true devotee is passionate, patient, self-controlled, determined and treats friends and foes the same. This is a person who is dear to their God (Radhakrishnan and Moore 144).

Bhakti Yoga can be traced as far back as 300 B.C. and seen as one of the oldest forms of Yoga (McCartney 150). One assumption for its presence can be based on its simplicity and because of this, its attraction from “commoners” who may be untutored (McCartney 149). It is believed that Bhakti Yoga does not require a lot of intellectual skills or great amount of knowledge. All it requires is emotion as a loving state of mind and the urge to worship. Bhakta Yogis believe that meditation is of great importance. It is thought that through meditation one can “graduate” the stages of devotion to God. There are two stages. First, an elementary stage which is the love for and worship of a personal God (such as love existing in a relationship between parent and child). Second, is a pure devoted love that comes to exist. God is now worshipped as the all-knowing Absolute (McCartney 160). As a Bhakta, every act performed everyday is one of devotion, regardless of getting anything in return. This love is believed to be demonstrated in action. One can spend a life time thinking about loving thoughts, but if these thoughts are never expressed, it is thought that one will have never loved at all (Feuerstein 1991:86). Bhakti Yogis believe that love is not a temporary high that comes and goes, but one that needs to be nourished as an ongoing spiritual disposition (Feuerstein 1991:85). Even when one is sad, hurt, angry or bored, love needs to exist. It is in these moments of doubt when love is needed the most.

One well known spiritual teacher, Sri Swami Sivananda, stated that each Yoga is a fulfillment of the preceding one (Sri Swami Sivananda 1). Karma Yoga leads to Bhakti Yoga which brings Jnana Yoga (knowledge). So to understand Jnana Yoga, one must first be experienced with Bhakti Yoga and Jnana Yoga. It is thought that any practice or belief that is sincere will go straight to the Source. If you sincerely believe in something and practice it with good intentions, you will be rewarded.

Yoga is an extremely old and popular spiritual tradition. From a broad perspective, all types of Yoga seem to have the same purpose. This is for one to become less focused on the self and more focused on a “higher” Reality (Feuerstein 1996: 1). It is possible for anyone to practice Yoga regardless of age, sex, race or religious beliefs. Yoga is commonly known as a discipline rather than a therapy. Therapy is for those who are sick and unhealthy, discipline is needed even when one is healthy (Osho 21). Yoga has been said to be helpful in many ways including spiritual, physical and psychological. It is believed that by understanding and having total faith in what you practice be it Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga or Bhakti Yoga, one can be more in tune with oneself and the world around them.

REFERENCES

Feuerstein, Georg (1991) Sacred Paths: Essays on Wisdom, Love and Mystical Realization. Burdett, NY: Larson Publications.

Feuerstein, Georg (1996) The Shambala Guide to Yoga. Boston: Shambhala Publications.

Feuerstein, Georg (2003) The Deeper Dimension of Yoga. Boston: Shambhala Publications.

McCartney, James (1969) Yoga: The Key to Life. Johannesburg: Rider & Company.

Osho (1976) The Path of Yoga: Commentaries of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. MS, India: Thomson Press.

Radhakrishnan, S., and C.A. Moore (eds.) (1989) A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Singh, Balbir (1981) Karma Yoga: The Discipline of Action. New Jersey: Humanities Press.

Sri Chinmoy (2000) The Wisdom of Sri Chinmoy. San Diego: The Blue Dove Foundation.

Sri Swami Sivananda (no date) Science of Yoga (vol.5). Pondicherry, India: Swami Krishnananda.

Related Topics for Further Investigation

Yoga

Hatha Yoga

Moksa

Samdhi

Krsna

Arjuna

Bhagavad-Gita

The Mahabharata

Brahman

Patanjali

Yoga Sutras

Jnana Yoga

Karma Yoga

Bhakti Yoga

Raja Yoga

Siva

Visnu

Citta

Vrtti

Vicara

Ramana Maharsi

Noteworthy Websites Related to the Topic

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhagavad_Gita

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoga

http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/intro.html

http://www.yogavision.net/yv/satyoga/karmayoga.htm

http://www.abc-of-yoga.com/

http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/The_Yoga/id/23119

http://www.hinduism.co.za/bhakti1.htm

http://www.hinduism.co.za/karma.htm

http://www.hinduism.co.za/jnana.htm

Article written by Andrea Werewka (April 2006), who is solely responsible for its content.