Category Archives: F. Indian Philosophical Schools

Female Ascetics in Hinduism

Women in Hindu society generally take on a role of and are identified as householders, thus providing for a husband and family. However, some women, though a clear minority, choose a different life path which is the life of the ascetic. An ascetic is regarded as someone who abstains from worldly pleasures often in search of spiritual goals through renunciation (Denton 2). Ascetics seek to free themselves from the cycle of rebirth entirely and thereby reach salvation. Although there are a variety of ascetic forms such as celibacy and tantrism, renunciation and the sannyasas or sannyasinis are the most recognizable.

The term sannyasa (male) or sannyasini (female) means ‘abandonment’ or ‘laying aside completely’. Entry into this lifestyle involves a dramatic ritual to symbolically discard the world in which they currently live. To take on the role of a sannyasini one must establish their ritual death. This is done by figuratively cremating oneself or performing their one’s own funeral rites and also by uttering the phrase “None belongs to me, to none do I belong” or a simpler yet no less powerful phrase “I leave absolutely everything behind” (Denton 94). Initiation ceremonies into ascetic life differ from one ascetic to the next, but ritual details such as offering balls of rice to ancestors and creating grass statues of themselves which they later burn to symbolically represent cremation, remain consistent elements to the initiation process (Leslie 219). This initiation ritual into asceticism marks the rejection or separation from householdership; a commitment to a particular path towards ideals such as liberation (moksa), acquiring knowledge of the Absolute (Brahman) or salvation (mukti) through union; and the admittance into a community of fellow ascetics. This initiation process completely relieves a woman of their original social identity and alters the former relationship they had with householder women. They thereby embrace a new set of values far different than those of the ideal woman, wife and householder in Hindu society (Leslie 214). As the practice of world renunciation is seen as a primarily masculine way of life usually for male twice-borns, females who take on the path of renunciation are seen as ones who have left the orthodox norm behind. However, they may often be found to say what is in the minds of many orthodox housewives in regards to their disagreement with family life, ties and what is expected of women at the householder stage (Clementin-Ojha 1988). Some ascetic women have declared nothing but relief over their choice to leave householdership. As one renouncer-ascetic (sannyasini) stated, “In the householder life, you know great pleasure and sorrow, but you cannot know peace. That life is in a state of constant change and so your mind cannot become still. In the ascetic life, you are single-minded and so you can achieve salvation” (Leslie 215). Each sannyasini is different in their pursuit of activities or religious path in that some focus on study, meditation and wandering, where others are found to focus on preaching and teaching ascetic values, hymns and sermons to householder disciples who visit (Denton 95).

An interesting fact about ascetic women and girls is their variation in appearance. One may choose to wear a white sari while others wear red; some tie ochre (gerua) cloth around their torso whereas others may choose to wear white or bright yellow (kesar). In regards to hair, some ascetics choose to have their heads shaven, others with loose and flowing hair; some will trim the hair at earlobe length and oil it and others form it into matted strands (jata) by rubbing ashes into the hair (Leslie 218). The vast majority of ascetic women fall in a cluster around the age of 60, but in the city of Varanasi there is a diversity in the age group of ascetics which correlate well with two types of asceticism, celibacy and renunciation (Denton 122). Since the majority of younger ascetics are unmarried and from high-caste families, it suggests that their families cannot afford dowries thereby leaving their daughters unwed and undesirable. This causes families to send their daughters to Varanasi where young girls will enter brahmacarya or celibacy, which guards their purity and guarantees them a ritual standing higher than that of an ordinary orthodox householder (Denton 123). While the younger ascetic females are free to leave Varanasi and ascetic life at any time, most choose to stay in the city or frequently travel to other city centres where ascetic festivals and feasts occur (Leslie 220). Cities such as Varanasi give proof that although ascetics may give up traditional values of the Hindu social world, they do not necessarily give up society and can actually be found to be comfortable with and accepted by others.

Ascetics tend to put forward a religious reason as to why they chose this life path of worldly renunciation to find their salvation (Clementin-Ojha 1988). However it is difficult to describe a religious practice of a female renouncer because in choosing the life of the ascetic one is no longer committed to a specific path (Leslie 22). A female renouncer-ascetic may follow a “path of knowledge” (Leslie 221) by engaging in the repetition of a mantra or “sacred utterance” (Rodrigues 70) and focusing on meditation. Some may also choose to devote the hours in the day to yoga or sitting in the lotus posture, while others may offer rituals of worship to a goddess such as Durga (Leslie 221). Since renunciation itself bestows such large amounts of freedom upon each individual that one can choose how they devote themselves to a religious path and how they explain their beliefs as well.

The life of a renouncer-ascetic may cause orthodox Hindus to put these women under criticism and scrutiny. Dharma is righteousness, duty, morality, law, social obligations or particular religious teachings (Rodrigues 546) that an individual is expected to follow in Hindu society. To not live according to one’s dharma is considered to be a main offense in Hindu tradition. Women who renounce the life of the householder and the orthodox traditions expected of them are considered to be adopting ‘adharmic’ behavior. They can be seen as rebels, as renunciation from the world is considered to be an effort at achieving their own individual freedom instead of following the life that the orthodoxy had prescribed for them (Clementin-Ojha 1988). Female renouncer-ascetics have strong beliefs, but do not use these beliefs as a way to criticise traditional aspects of Hindu society. By living amongst orthodox Hindus, ascetics show and encourage other members of society to respect their svadharma (one’s own dharma) as they respect the orthodox traditions and its stri-dharma (woman/wife’s code of righteous behavior (Rodrigues 564). Not only do these ascetic women respect the traditions of Hindu society, they often discourage other females to do what they themselves have done by leaving householdership. In research conducted by Catherine Clementin-Ojha, the late Svami Karapatri, a supporter of orthodoxy but also an ascetic, upheld that women could obtain a higher state of consciousness and could become ascetics and guides. However, he did not allow women into his ascetic order and denied that there have never been a “single real sannyasini in India” (Clementin-Ojha 1988).

Although not as common or influential, two other types of female asceticism exist: celibacy and tantrism, both different phenomena from renunciation. Celibate asceticism or a celibate student (brahmacarya) is often one of the first stages of life (asrama) prescribed for twice-born males. It can also occur in a number of other ways, such as a female choosing an institutionalized lifestyle of celibacy and regarding themselves as brahmacarinis, like the classical rite into studentship, or the first twelve years prior to initiation into sannyasa (Denton 96). Celibacy is the intention to remain pure for as long as possible and avoid pollution. Tantric asceticism on the other hand relies mainly on oral tradition. However, there is no ritual of initiation into tantric asceticism as there is for orthodox renunciation and celibacy. Those who define themselves as tantric undertake a “fierce discipline” (Leslie 225) and are said to have achieved powers (siddhi) by practicing difficult acts. It is believed that these acts include sex rituals (maithuna) and a disciplined relationship between themselves and their teacher (Leslie 225). Unlike renunciation, tantric asceticism acknowledges full liberation but also full divinization, putting emphasis on finding a state of bliss (ananda) or madness (pagalpan).

Evidently the life of a female ascetic in Hinduism is a complex, underappreciated and understudied phenomenon in Hindu society. With only little research conducted on the life of female ascetics, mostly over the past few decades, it is hard to determine what truly prompts a Hindu woman to leave the orthodox life of a householder, wife and mother, but it is exceptional to see that these women are willing to defy the norms of traditional Hindu female expectations and let themselves become equal with their male sannyasa counterparts and live out their svadharma and find liberation at their time of physical death.

 

References and Further Recommended Readings

Bose, Mandakranta (2010) Women in the Hindu Tradition: Rules, Roles and Expectations. New York: Routledge Hindu Studies Series.

Chowdhry, Prem (1996) “Marriage, Sexuality and the Female ‘ascetic’: Understanding a Hindu Sect.” Economic and Political Weekly 31.34 2307–2321.

Clementin-Ojha, Catherine (1988) “Outside the Norms: Women Ascetics in Hindu Society.” Economic and Political Weekly. 23(18): WS34-6

Leslie, Julia (1991) Roles and Rituals for Hindu Women. Cranbury: Farleigh Dickinson University Press

Mitra, Kana (1983) ‘Women in Hinduism.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies. 20(4), 585

Rodrigues, Hillary (2007) Hinduism – the eBook. Journal of Buddhist Ethics Online Books.

Teskey Denton, Lynn (2004) Female Ascetics in Hinduism. Albany: State University of New York Press.

 

Related Topics

Celibacy

Dharma

Moksa

Sannyasa

Women in Hinduism

Women’s Roles in Hindu Society

 

Related Websites

http://hinduwebsite.com/hinduism/essays/ascetics.asp

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sannyasa

 

Article written by: Kenzie Campbell (March 2016) who is solely responsible for its content.

Ahimsa (The concept of Non-harming in Hinduism)

Ahimsa, which literally translates as “non-violence” or “non-injury”, refers to non-violence towards both human and non-human beings physically, mentally, and spiritually (Ghosh 13).  The idea of Ahimsa had been educed from two related yet unique sources; among traditional Hindu thinkers, rather than the idea of non-violence, it was the idea of not hurting living beings as all living beings were divine (Parekh 196).  Another source where Ahimsa may have derived is from one of the 10 Buddhist Parami (perfections), namely metta (benevolence).  Both ideas present a similar concept; that all life is sacred and no harm should be done unto each other (Parekh 196).  Ahimsa also has its roots in the belief of samsara (eternal cycle).  Traditional Hindu thinkers believe that the soul of an individual can be reincarnated into an animal, thus the killing of an animal would in actuality be the killing of a person.  This belief is particularly in reference to cattle, whom they claim are sacred animals (Schneider 87).

Although the exact origin of the term is unknown, Ahimsa is found in many Hindu scriptures, and predates Aryan culture.  Its earliest known origin in texts can traced back to the Rgveda conception of rta (that which is properly/excellently joined; order, rule; truth) (Heimann 331).  Rta is closely affiliated with dharma (duty), demanding that every living and non-living being follow the cosmic order of their existence in such a way that it does not avert others from being able to follow their own laws of existence (Heimann 331).  In the Mahabharata, the concept of Ahimsa does have exceptions to the rule of non-violence; ksatriyas (warrior caste) who would fight in battle would have their sins dissipated by their acts of heroism in battle in order to secure the advancement of all beings.  A king may also destroy those who may deserve to be destroyed, in order to protect the people of his kingdom. (Ghosh 47).  The Bhagavadgita, in the Mahabharata, is a significant scripture in the Hindu tradition that regards the concept of Ahimsa.  In the epic, Arjuna’s refusal to fight his former allies and loved ones in battle was from the desire for Ahimsa (Ghosh 52).  Ahimsa has multiple variations of its name and definition in many Hindu scriptures, although not all scriptures mention or contain much insight on the concept itself, they do appear in the Upanisads, Brahmanas, Dharma Sastras, Tripitakas (Buddhist canonical literature), Dhammapada (Buddhist scripture), Yajur Veda, and other Hindu scriptures [For more information concerning the concept of Ahimsa in the Rgveda, Upanisads, Bhagavadgita and Mahabharata, see Klostermaier (1996) and Ghosh (1989)].

Traditionally, Ahimsa in Hinduism was not the highest ideal, as animal sacrifice in some rituals was, and still is, part of Hindu tradition.  The later traditions of Buddhism and Jainism would eventually hold the concept (in particular, the Jains) as one of its most important virtues, with complete abstinence from harm necessary in order to reach their ultimate goal of moksa (liberation) (Klostermaier 228).  Although Ahimsa was not considered the highest ideal in Hindu tradition, it was still encouraged among Hindus because the avoidance of harm to both humans and animals would bring the individual closer to moksa (Framarin 286, 288).  Historically, it was not until Emperor Ashoka (268-233 BCE) popularized the concept of Ahimsa through his conversion to Buddhism and by stressing the sanctity of animal life that the concept truly spread through India and Asia (Sharma 60).  Again, the concept of Ahimsa does not refer only to the act of physical non-violence, but mental and spiritual non-violence as well.  Spiritual non-violence, which is making peace with one’s self, is of the utmost importance in Hindu religious tradition to achieve.  Once spiritual non-violence is attained, the body and mind follow effortlessly (Sharma 58).  Ahimsa is also an important part of Patanjali Yoga, in which Ahimsa is the first of five yamas (moral restraints), along with satya (truthfulness), asteya (non-stealing), brahmacarya (sexual abstinence), and aparigraha (freedom from covetousness).  All five yamas must be practiced in order to achieve a state of inner peace (Klostermaier 232).  Ahimsa is considered an important and universal concept in the Yoga Sutras as well, and asserts that Ahimsa should not only be observed towards certain circumstances in time, but that it be observed universally (Klostermaier 234).  Though Hindu tradition acknowledges the concept and practices of Ahimsa, classical Indian tradition scholars believe that Ahimsa did not mean a total abstinence from harm for them, but rather to encourage alpadroha (minimum violence possible that one is responsible for).  Likewise, in Buddhist and Jain tradition, minimal violence as possible is an accepted reality, and those tolerant of minimal violence typically were also tolerant of war and the justifiable treatment of criminals (Parekh 197).

In Buddhist tradition, Ahimsa is not considered a doctrine, nor is it a theory.  It is not a doctrine, as it is not adopted, discussed or defended in Classical Indian Buddhism literature.  It is not considered a theory, as the act of Ahimsa does not enable a better understanding of the nature and structure of the cosmos.  Although Buddhism does not define Ahimsa as a doctrine or a theory, it is indeed considered a cardinal virtue (Chinchore 103).    A Buddhist will recognize his relationship to living beings as being so essential and symbiotic that any act of violence towards another being will certainly harm themselves.  Additionally, the act of non-violence in a Buddhists life is one virtue that contributes in bringing them closer to their ultimate goal of nirvana (a state of perfect happiness) (Ghosh 58).  Although there are some differences in the concept of Ahimsa among the three traditions, the idea of Ahimsa itself stays relatively the same.  As such, all three traditions believe that in order to achieve Ahimsa, one must begin at the mind, as the determination for doing anything begins at the mental level first (Ghosh 59).  In contrast between the Hindu and Buddhist tradition, a notable difference in the concept of Ahimsa is in regards to animal sacrifices.  According to scripture, Lord Buddha claims animal sacrifices are undesirable and unnecessary in order to perform sacrifices, and rather than doing harm to animals, one can instead offer clothing or food such as rice as offerings (Ghosh 64) [For more information regarding Buddhist practices of Ahimsa, see Ghosh (1989)].

Jainism, founded by Mahavira in 5th century BCE, holds the concept of Ahimsa as its most important concept, and base their traditions around this fundamental principle.  Multiple agamas (Jain canonical literature) emphasize that any act of violence towards any living being will increase their sins in the next life, and to eliminate these sins, one must not commit any acts of violence whatsoever (Sharma 61).  Jainism considers Ahimsa as both a doctrine and an elaborate theory, and consider Ahimsa as a vrata (vow, promise).  In addition to their dedication to the practice of Ahimsa, Jains typically perform tapas (asceticism) in order to achieve moksa (Cort 721).  Because Jainism holds the concept of Ahimsa as a much more important and complex idea than either Hindu or Buddhist tradition, Jain tradition adopts the concept quite literally, and as a result, some of its practices of asceticism are considered more extremist or obsessive in nature in dedication to this concept (Chinchore 105).  Jainism practice also involves strict dietary restriction; the killing or eating of an animal would bind one to karma, which keeps one tied to the cycle of rebirth (samsara).  Certain plants may not be consumed in order to avoid the possibility of killing microscopic organisms that may further bind them to karma, and retract them from moksa [For more detail regarding Jain philosophy and its practices of asceticism, see Cort (2002)] (Cort 723-724).

Outside of the religious traditions of Buddhism and Jainism, Ahimsa holds importance in civil and religious law as an ethical doctrine in Hindu tradition, and re-emerged in popularity during the beginning of the 20th century through Mahatma Gandhi.  The concept of Ahimsa, in essence, “sows the seed of tolerance” among others, promoting a sense of equality (Heimann 333).  Mahatma Gandhi coined and developed the term satyagraha (truth) derived from his principles of Ahimsa, and came to popularize and modernize the concept of Ahimsa in ethical and political terms (Parekh 198).  Through his popularity and political influence, Gandhi gave the concept of Ahimsa multiple definitions under different circumstances; a thief that would attack a man was committing an act of Himsa, but a surgeon using a knife in order to save a human being was not committing an act of Himsa, as the act was attempting to alleviate the pain the individual felt (Parekh 198).  Rather than practicing Ahimsa through the literal translation of what it means, Gandhi emphasized that Ahimsa has both ‘narrow’ (negative) and ‘broad’ (positive) categorical definitions of the term.  In its narrow sense, Ahimsa was the literal practice of non-violence, but in its more broad definition, it meant the promotion of well-being to all living things (Parekh 198).  This difference in definition of the concept was brought forth because rather than being concerned with the direct harming of another being, Gandhi was more focused on the daily suffering that occurs around the world that was a result of social, economic and political exploitation (Ghosh 118).  Gandhi was not without criticism and controversy, however; Indian scholars considered Gandhi’s concept of Ahimsa as a radical redefinition and distant from the traditional Hindu concept of Ahimsa.  For this reason, critics would argue that Gandhi was hypocritical of his concept through his own actions; an injured calf in Gandhi’s possession was euthanized at Gandhi’s request in order to alleviate the calf of suffering.  In turn, this caused Gandhi’s critics to reiterate the Indian doctrine of Ahimsa in which any act of killing was unjustifiable, regardless of how much pain the creature was in, and that Gandhi’s Western influence of the alleviation of pain was a more vital concept to Gandhi rather than the absolute preservation of life that held true to the classical Hindu traditional thinking of the definition (Parekh 203).

The concept and practice of Ahimsa is dynamic in its source, and the religious traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism contribute their own understanding of how non-violence is defined (Sharma 64).  The definition of Ahimsa is truly broad in its context, but there is an important similarity in the concept of Ahimsa among the Hindu, Buddhist and Jain traditions: that the prana (life force) is universally sacred and vital to the cosmos for all living beings (Walker 149).

 

REFERENCES AND FURTHER RECOMMENDED READING

Amore, Roy C. (1996) “Peace and Non-violence in Buddhism.” In Harvey L. Dyck, ed. The Pacifist Impulse in Historical Perspective.  Toronto: University of Toronto Press.  p. 240 – 259.

 

Chinchore, Mangala (2005) “Conception of Ahimsa in Buddhism: A Critical Note.”  Annals of  the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Vol. 85 No. 1: 103-109.

 

Cort, J. E. (2002) “Singing the Glory of Asceticism: Devotion of Asceticism in Jainism.” Journal of The American Academy Of Religion Vol. 70, No. 4: 719-742.

 

Framarin, Christopher (2011) “The value of nature in Indian (Hindu) traditions.”  Religious Studies 47 #3 (September): 285-300.

 

Ghosh, Indu M. (1989) Ahimsa: Buddhist and Gandhian.  Delhi: Balaji Enterprises.

 

Hay, Stephen (1996) “Gandhi’s Non-violence: Metaphysical, Moral, Political and International Aspects.” In Harvey L. Dyck, ed. The Pacifist Impulse in Historical Perspective.  Toronto: University of Toronto Press.  p. 278 – 295.

 

Heimann, Betty (1932) “Substance of the Lecture on the philosophical aspect of Ahimsa.” Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Vol. 13, No. 3: 331-334.

 

Klostermaier, Klaus K. (1996) “Himsa and Ahimsa Traditions in Hinduism.” In Harvey L. Dyck, ed. The Pacifist Impulse in Historical Perspective.  Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 227 – 239.

 

Parekh, Bhikhu (1988) “Gandhi’s Concept of Ahimsa.”  Alternatives XIII: 195-217.

 

Ravindra, Ravi (1995) “Ahimsa, transformation, and ecology.” ReVision Vol. 17, No. 3: 23-34.

 

Schneider, Burch H. (1948) “The Doctrine of Ahimsa and Cattle Breeding in India.” The Scientific Monthly Vol. 67, No. 2: 87-92.

 

Sharma, Satish (1999) “Peace and nonviolence in the Indian religious tradition.”  Peace Research 31 #1: 58-65.  Winnipeg: Canadian Mennonite University.

 

Walker, Claire (1994) “What do we mean by non-violence?” Journal of Religion and Psychical Research Vol. 17, No. 3: 146-150.

 

Related Topics for Further Investigation

Maitri

Samsara

Aryan Culture

Rgveda

Rta

Dharma

Mahabharata

Kstriyas

Bhagavadgita

Upanisads

Brahmanas

Dharma Sastras

Tipitakas

Dhammapada

Yajur Veda

Buddhism

Jainism

Moksa

Patanjali Yoga

Yamas

Alpadroha

Nirvana

Mahavira

Agamas

Tapas

Mahatma Gandhi

Satyagraha

Prana

 

Noteworthy Websites Related to the Topic

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/10041/ahimsa

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahimsa

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jainism

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandhism

https://www.himalayanacademy.com/readlearn/basics/ahimsa-nonviolence

http://www.baps.org/Spiritual-Living/Hindu-Beliefs/Compassion-and-Nonviolence-Ahimsa.aspx

http://www.hinduismtoday.com/modules/smartsection/item.php?itemid=1662

http://fore.research.yale.edu/news/item/practicing-ahimsa-nonviolence-toward-humans-animals-and-earth/

http://www.madhava.net/as-i-think-mahatma-gandhi-concept-of-ahimsa-in-hinduism-rama-killing-of-vali/

http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/india3.htm

 

Article written by: Nicholas Urquhart (March 2015) who is soley responsible for its content.

Krishnamacharya and the Hatha Yoga Movement

Yoga has been practiced for centuries, with alternative meanings and health benefits as it has moved into modern day. The Vedas are the primary source of ancient Indian traditions and practices of worship that allow people to live life in a dharmic manner. These texts refer to the attainment of moksha (liberation) and yoga is one of the modes to attain this goal. Traditional Vedic yoga is connected with ideas that revolve around ritual sacrifices for the purpose of connecting the material world with the spiritual world (Feuerstein 5).  The successful yoga practices create focus for a long period of time as a way of transcending the limitations of the mind in order to reach spiritual reality (Feuerstein 5). The preclassical period of yoga was approximately 2,000 years until the second century C.E when it closely followed the sacrificial culture discussed in The Brahmanas and Aranyakas, which re genres of Sanskrit texts. It is the Upanishads, which teach the unity of all things, that ultimately expanded the practice of yoga (Feuerstein 6). Post classical yoga first demonstrates the shift of focus from contemplation with the result of developing a spiritual conscious, to practices that rejuvenate the body and influence a prolonged life. (Feuerstein 6).  Hatha yoga or “yoga of force” is a practice that utilizes posture (asana) and breath control (pranayama) as a way of transforming the body’s energy to influence spiritual transformation (Starbacker 105). The physical nature of hatha yoga is what influenced its appeal in the 19th century as calisthenics became popular in India and around the world.

Tirumalai Krishnamacharya is widely considered the father of modern yoga as he developed movement-orientated postural systems that have been presented internationally by his disciples (Starbacker 103). Krishnamacharya documents the purpose of yogabhyasa (the practice of yoga or abstract devotion) and why it is an important practice that influences the welling being of the mind and body in his book Yoga Makaranda, which is one of many of his publications. He explains that it is the philosophy of yoga to draw the minds focus inwards to reach deep concentration to develop a form of mental strength. The benefit of this process is comparable to how sleep rejuvenates the mind, in which sleep is of a tamasic nature. The mental strength that is developed through yogabhyasa is called yoga nidra, and it by far exceeds the amount of strength and concentration that sleep or meditation may offer (Krishnamacharya 7). The benefits of yogabhyasa are separated into eight parts: yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, and Samadhi (Krishnamacharya 8). There are benefits at every stage of practice; it is not that there is a final stage that reveals all the benefits at the same time. Yama develops compassion towards other living beings, while niyama is a state of peace and tranquility with the environment and internally. Asana practice causes correct blood circulation and internal functions; pranayama develops strength in the bones and bone marrow, heart, brain, muscles and tendons. Pratyahara is to bring ones own indriyas (five senses) under control in order to have a focused mind. Dharana is to stop the mind and hold it in one place, while dhyana is to focus the mind in one direction and to attain whatever form is though about. Samadhi is to have stopped all external movements of the mind and have reached a state of happiness about the physical and spiritual world (Krishnamacharya 8-16).

Krishnamacharya was most influential during his residency at Jaganmohan Palace in Mysore from 1930-1950, when he developed a very physical and acrobatic system of asanas that are most similar to yoga today (Heerman 20). It remains unclear if Krishnamacharya stayed true to his teaching from his guru Rama Mohan Bramachari with the transition of his yoga teachings in India, and the conflicting western views that have greatly influenced the way yoga is received from his students (Heerman 20). Once Krishnamacharya completed his teachings, he set out to teach this spiritual system of yoga throughout India. The traditional system of yoga practices was becoming outdated and was not received well by most people. Because of his unsuccessful pursuit to make a living as a yoga teacher, Krishnamacharya traveled around India giving lectures and demonstrating siddhis (supernormal abilities of the yogic body) (Heerman 21). In order to gain attention and interest in yoga, he demonstrated suspending his pulse, lifting heavy objects with his teeth and performed difficult asanas (Heerman 21). Krishnamacharya was then recruited by the Maharaja of Mysore, Krishnarajendra Wodeyar to teach at the Jaganmohan Palace for young male royals (Heerman 21). The Maharaja was very committed to promoting cultural, political and technological innovations for Mysore, as well as encouraging physical education, which was known as the “Indian physical culture movement”, that was designed to created the strength necessary to reclaim India after so many years of colonial rule (Heerman 22). Krishnamacharya’s yoga teachings were greatly influenced to be aerobic and physical due to the Maharaja and the popularity of exercise. As a result, hatha yoga gained wide popularity compared to the traditional yoga practices, which ultimately led to the vast arrangement of yoga forms that are present in India and North America today.

Hatha yoga is mainly the methods of doing asanas (yoga postures). The circulation and strength of the body is only one of eight parts that contribute to the whole of yogabhyasa, while the mindfulness and focus of yoga has not maintained its aesthetic appeal. Krishnamacharya explains his distaste for the way practitioners of yogabhyasa ignore vinyasa krama and worries that the Vedas from which yoga practice has originated will be ruined (Krishnamacharya 26). The form, metre, syllables, and verses that form the entirety of the Vedas are comparable to the way in which yoga should be practiced. The combination of the eight elements of yogabhyasa is what provides the beneficial integrity of yoga practices. From the perspective of Krishnamacharya in Yoga Makaranda, yoga has a deep spiritual meaning and benefit that has deteriorated with the Westernization of hatha yoga. To Krishnamacharya, yoga is a form of Vedic ritual that develops more than toned muscles and flexibility. Although the Yoga Makaranda provides much information on the traditional Hindu practice of yoga with regards to the Vedas, Krishnamacharya is recognized as a figure who influenced the separation of religiosity of yoga from the growth of modern yoga. Other organizations, such as Christian yoga, argue that spiritual expression can still be reached without the Hindu dimensions of yogabhyasa. The interest in yoga in North America encouraged the streamlined approach of simplifying yogic concepts in a way that was acceptable to Western and Christian spiritual views (Heerman 13).

Bas-relief on a temple pillar depicting a yogic posture, utilized in ascetic practice (Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam, Tamil Nadu, India).
Bas-relief on a temple pillar depicting a yogic posture, utilized in ascetic practice (Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam, Tamil Nadu, India).

Christian opponents of yoga hold that Hindu traditions are in conflict with Christian doctrine (Jain 4). The contemporary Western view of modern yoga is as a mode physical fitness, separated from its historical origins. Similarly, Hindu opponents of this disconnect of yoga from its historical spiritual origins, believe that yoga has been corrupted by the profit driven popularization of contemporary yogis (Jain 4). Prior to Krishnamacharya, there where other yoga masters involved with the popularization of Hatha Yoga. Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902) is widely known to have used a combination of existing yoga with modern ideas and practices (Jain 5). As postural yoga remains without a Hindu signature in modern western society, alternative spiritual connotations have been attached to it. For example, Christian Yoga emphasizes postures and breath control as a way of focusing on Christ (Jain 6). The differing opinions and techniques associated with yoga is what allows it to be appealing to many different groups, but also contribute to the opposition that both Christians and Hindus have towards modern postural yoga.

Krishnamacharya demonstrated exceptional strength and flexibility that encourages the appeal of yoga for its physical benefits, but his teachings in Yoga Makaranda, suggest that he taught with the intention of encouraging anyone to practice yoga. He has extensive teachings on the spiritual origins and the responsibility of the guru to teach a student in such a way that all aspects that contribute to yoga are recognized in order to receive the benefits of yoga. Yet, it can also be seen that Krishnamacharya did not maintain a traditional yoga system that is true to the teachings of his own guru as his career was greatly influenced by Maharaja of Mysore and popularity of physical exercise. The tendency that Krishnamacharya had for tailoring his instructions so that each of his students could maximize the physical benefits, also demonstrates the stray away from the traditional yoga system (Heerman 30).

Besides the conflicting viewpoint of modern yoga and Hindu traditions, Krishnamacharya designed a form of exercise that is unique and modifiable to anyone who wishes to participate. Hatha yoga can build strength, and cause an overall benefit to health as well as encouraging concentration and focus that can be interpreted as spiritual, self reflective, or religious depending on how the participant want to approach a yoga practice. Krishnamacharya may have influenced the separation of Hindu tradition from modern forms of yoga but made yoga accessible to everyone who wishes to participate.

REFERENCES AND FURTHER RECOMMENDED READING

Burley, Mikel (2014) ‘A Purification of Ones Own Humanity’ Nonattachment and Ethics in Yoga Traditions. The Journal of Religion. Vol. 94, No. 2, P. 204-228. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Feuerstein, Georg (2006) “A Short History of Yoga”. The Yoga Tradition. P. 1-10. Hohm Press.

Heerman, Grace (2014) “Yoga in the Modern World: The Search for the ‘Authentic’ Practice.” Sociology and Anthropology Theses. Paper 5, P. 1-45, Tacoma Washington: University of Puget Sound.

Jain, Antrea R. (2012) “The Malleability of Yoga: A Response to Christian and Hindu Opponents of the Popularization of Yoga”. Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies: Vol. 25, Article 4. P. 1-8, Indianapolis, Indiana: Butler University.

Krishnamacharya, Sir T. (1934) Yoga Makaranda: The Essence of Yoga (Part One). Kannada Edition, Madurai C.M.V. Press. P. 1-159.

Starbacker, Stuart R. (2014) “Reclaiming the Spirit through the Body: The Nascent Spirituality of Modern Postural Yoga”. Entangled Religions; Oregon: Oregon State University, Article 3, P. 95-114.

Singleton, Mark (2007) “Yoga, Eugenics, and Spiritual Darwinism in the Early Twentieth Century”. International Journal of Hindu Studies; Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 125-146. Springer.

RELATED TOPICS

Dharmic

Moksha

Bramanas

Aranyakas

Asana

Pranayama

Sattva guna

Tamasic

Yogabhyasa

Nidre

Yama

Niyama

Pratyahara

Dharana

Dhyana

Indriyas

Jaganmohan

Swami Vivekananda

Vinyasa krama

Krishnarajendra Wodeyar

Maharaja

 siddhis

Samadhi

NOTEWORTHY WEBSITES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tirumalai_Krishnamacharya

http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ananda_Bhavanani/publication/241276617_UNDERSTANDING_THE_YOGA_DARSHAN/links/0046351fcf7cb2a45b000000.pdf

http://www.academia.edu/638083/The_Development_of_Modern_Yoga_A_Survey_of_the_Field

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indriya

 

Article written by: Monica Johnson (March 2015) who is solely responsible for its content.

Maya: The Concept of Illusion

Maya is the term for “cosmic/worldly-illusion,” “multiplicity,” “that which is not” within the Hindu religion. Though Maya’s etymology is unclear, we can trace through the ancient scriptures and texts to discover its origin and its myriad of meanings and uses.

In early Vedic literature, specifically the Rg Veda, we see the term is used to represent “intelligence,” (prajna/buddhi) “extraordinary power,” and “deception” (kapata) in its simple and compound forms. This idea was developed and conveyed to humanity by the God Indra, who took on many forms with his Maya or “extraordinary willpower”, in which he did marvelous things that mortal humans could not comprehend. Since his “extraordinary willpower” defies normal human understanding, it is considered a phenomenon and we accept it as a form of “deception” from what we think we know as true, or what we are familiar with (see Shastri 10-11). In other Vedic scripture such as the Atharvaveda, the term has more influence as a supernatural element, portraying Maya as “great illusion” and “magic” in which embodies a person and the world. In the Brahmanas the word is again used for “intelligence” (prajna/buddhi). In the Upanishads, the grand philosophical texts that have been sometimes used to describe the esoteric values of the Vedas as a whole, we see the term expand its illusionary meaning to “cosmic illusion”. The Upanishads also recognize Maya as something the Atman creates and controls, thus being deluded by multiplicity that arises from within the self. There is only one true reality, and all plurality and multiplicity is Maya which the Atman creates. The Sankhya philosophy identifies Maya with Prakrti (primordial matter) as the source of the universe, with the distinct difference that the latter is real. It is the equilibrium of the three qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. (Shastri 29). The Sankhya philosophy tells us that Maya’s influence on humankind is through the use of the three gunas. Maya appeals to our senses, and through the three gunas we become deluded by matter, energy, mass and mistakenly take them to be something on their own.

Maya was conveyed in early Vedic literature, specifically the Rg Veda and Atharvaveda, by describing “the one reality” “Brahman,” and “Atman”. The term is conveyed not through literal use at first, but by the representation of multiplicity, deception or illusion from the one true reality, Brahman. Maya is something that embodies the Atman and deludes it by believing that we are something entirely on it’s own, independent of Brahman. The early story of Svetaketu is a prime example; it shows how after Svetaketu completed his sacred education, he remained conceited, pedantic and opinionated. As this was also apparent to his father, his father asked him firstly whether he learned anything about the unheard being heard, the unseen being seen. Svetaketu failed to respond and asked for his fathers knowledge, his father said, “My son, as everything made of clay is known by a single clump of clay, being nothing more then a modification of speech, a change, a name, while the clay in the only truth” (see Gough 43). Maya embodies Atman and Brahman, and creates an illusion to the cosmic perspective. Knowing the many is being deluded, knowing the one is vanquishing the many. Every atom, molecule, cell, being, planet is all multiplicity from the One. As Indian philosophers say: if we know Brahman, we know all things (Gough 43). In the Upanishads Maya is the appearance that distinguishes all from true reality. He who sees as it were a plurality actually existing is never saved, but is over and over the subject to the pangs of birth and death in this samsara. The conception of Maya exhibits itself in such passages clearly, and yet many do not see it (Shastri 56). A high point of the Upanishads was that the reference to an “other”, which was a broad reference to anything in our daily natural lives, which is in turn multiplicity, was meant to be meaningless because anything that which is multiplied cannot be Brahman or the One. It also perceived that with multiplicity, no one true meaning can exist. For something to exist independently of Brahman would imply that it has another purpose or meaning that Brahman does not, which is false because Brahman is the only true reality (see Shastri 38-39)

The Atman is the ultimate goal and reality in life within the Hindu tradition. The Atman is the true self and the only self. It is said to be waiting just beneath the skin, waiting to be discovered. Maya embodies Atman and deludes the self into believing our natural realms of multiplicity are independent from the self. Not only does Maya’s illusion extend externally, it also confuses humans to recognize with their bodies and their identities, mistaking them as our own and independent from the One true reality. In the Upanishads, Atman is sometimes used to represent the earth, water, wind, men, and the natural world. This unity shows how all beings, elements and things are Atman. Atman can be seen as pure consciousness, unifying your conscious with the one of Brahmans, which is true consciousness. This means that all things exist only so far as they are my consciousness, which is a unity; hence the multiplicity, which seems to exist independent of my consciousness, is not real but only a mere name (Shastri 63). Maya embodies Atman, because all cows, earth, men, wind are portions of our conscious, but Maya confuses our Atman into believing they are entirely creations and beings on their own. This extends into our interaction with people, believing that being is completely independent from you. We believe he is he, she is she, they are they, I am only I, and all I can ever be is I. This is false, we are all Brahman, and we are deluded into seeing and believing plurality. Maya inspires a chain of events that are extremely hard to stop once they have begun. We begin becoming attached to the elements, such as fine metal and jewels, our aesthetics, what makes us unique and individual, where we reside, what we eat, how we are represented, how others think of us, the clothes we where, our status, etc. All these things are brought on by our multiplicity and continuously take us farther and farther away from the true One reality. People who latch onto plurality or multiplicity do not achieve liberation, and will continue the cycle of samsara until their lives are filled with understanding and desire to unify one self.

It is by a multiple concentration that the one self assumes the aspect of a multitude of selves, and it is by a multiple exclusive concentration that it loses sight, in each self, of its identity with the other selves and with the self of all selves. The result is avidya, the great ignorance, the thick veil hiding from us not only our true self but also a broad tangle of subliminal influences both acting on us and exerted by us (Mohrhoff 6).

Avidya is used in Vedic philosophy subjectively to represent the natural form and matter of the world that we perceive, distinguishing self from non-self, and then leading into preferences, likes and dislikes, egoism and more. Avidya is different from Maya because it is referring to the process of not knowing our true self, being ignorant and unwise due to Maya’s illusion, and not representing the illusion itself, only the process of forgetting our true nature. When one discovers his Atman, Avidya is destroyed along with Maya freeing himself from the cycle of samsara and realizing one’s true self.

Moksa or Mukti is the central concept in Hinduism and refers to the liberation from Maya’s illusion, the freedom of the cycle of samsara and the unification with Brahman. Thus all things melt into the original self, as the darkness faints and melts away before the rising sun. Its fictitiously limiting mind with all its modes has been dissolved, and the soul is the Self again; the jar is broken, and the ether that was in it is one with the one and undivided ether, from which the jar once seemed to sever it. The sage has seen the Self, and passed into oneness with it, lost like a drop in water (see Gough 60). Moksha is also known as Nirvana in the other heterodox Indian philosophies such as Buddhism and Jainism. Once a person is liberated, enjoying the glory of enlightenment, they seek to help others also unify with the self. Thus liberated from metempsychosis, but still living in the body, the sage is untouched by merit and de-merit, unsoiled by sinful works, uninjured by what he has done and by what he has left undone, unimplicated in his actions good or evil (Gough 61).

Maya is an extremely crucial and frequently misunderstood concept within Hinduism. Maya is the cosmic illusion which arises from the self’s consciousness which uses the three gunas of nature to delude us from what we truly are, giving us the idea that we are entirely independent and separate from anything else. Maya is multiplicity on every level, from a microscopic level of atoms to the universal size of planets; it is all in some shape or form, a variation and change to the “One” true reality and given its own identity. Maya develops ignorance, termed Avidya, which signifies the descent into the delusion, where we are completely lost from our Atman, even though he is just beneath the skin. Maya encompasses Brahman, therefore it encompasses our whole existence, everything we perceive is a creation of Maya and only with mental fortitude and spiritual willpower may we free ourselves from this ever-repeating cycle of samsara and illusion from the one. Once Maya has faded from our perception and we are finally realizing Atman and seeing the true reality of existence, we have achieved the state of moksa, the highest state of consciousness and existence within most Hindu religions. Maya is the necessary opposite to moksa, for without the delusion, there is nothing for one to realize.

REFERENCES AND FURTHER RECOMMENDED READING

Bhaskar, Roy (2000) From East to West: Odyssey of a Soul. Oxfordshire: Taylor & Francis Books.

Dallapiccola, Anna (2002) Dictionary of Hindu lore and legend. London: Thames & Hudson.

Gough, Edward (1979) The Philosophy of the Upanishads and Ancient Indian Metaphysics. New Dehli: Cosmo Publications.

Johnston, Charles (1912) The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. New York: The Quarterly Book Department.

Morhoff, Ulrich (2007) “The Veil of Avidya” Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education.

Shastri, Prabhu Dutt (1911) The Doctrine of Maya. London: Luzac and Co.

Simoni-Wastilla. Henry (2002) “Maya and Radical Particularity: Can Particular Persons Be One with Brahman?” International Journal of Hindu Studies Vol. 6, No. 1 (April): 1-18.

Sivanada, Sri Swami (2000) The Bhagavad Gita. Himalayas: The Divine Life Society.

Straight, G Carroll (2001) “Quantum Underpinnings of Religious Currents.” The World & I  Vol. 16, No. 1 (January): 154.

van Buitenen, Johannes Adrianus Bernardus (1964) “The Large Atman.” History of Religions Vol. 4, No.1 (Summer) 103-114.

Related Topics for Further Investigation

Moksha

Avidya

Brahman

Samsara

Atman

Upanishads

Rig Veda

Atharva Veda

Vedanta Philosophy

Sankhya System

Jnana Yoga

Sannyasa

Three Gunas

Prakrti

Svetaketu

Noteworthy Websites:

http://www.hinduwebsite.com/maya.asp

http://www.hinduwebsite.com/hinduism/essays/maya.asp

http://www.yogabasics.com/learn/the-3-gunas-of-nature/

http://www.dlshq.org/download/bgita.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_%28illusion%29

http://www.oocities.org/neovedanta/a87.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jnana_yoga

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moksha#S.C4.81mkhya.2C_Yoga_and_mok.E1.B9.A3a

Article written by: Forrest Freihaut (March 2015) who is solely responsible for its content.

 

Jivanmukti

Supported by writings as early as the Brhadaranyaka, the Hindu concept of Jivanmukti is gaining knowledge that one’s self is the non-dual, Brahman. It is knowing even further that the body is not the Ultimate Reality and the self was never actually embodied. It is in the destruction of this binding form of thought that brings about liberation; the destruction of the body does not. Freedom from the cycles of rebirth, the ultimate goal of liberation (moksa), places a distinct emphasis on the desirelessness which brings about immortality, bodilessness and the Ultimate Reality (brahman) (Fort 3-5). This release comes from the understanding and accession that humans are already liberated and the soul is free.

Advaita means “non-dual”. The school of Advaita Vedanta is named as such for it does not disassociate “us” or the universe as separate from the Ultimate Reality; they are one in the same or non-dual. The school of Advaita Vedanta relies heavily on three forms of knowledge transference being: (1) revelation, (2) reason and (3) teachings of beings who are in a state of living embodiment through the realization of Brahman (Sharma 13). This system is intrinsic to the Advaitic core teachings of living liberation, in contrast to all other schools of Hinduism which believe that for one to experience freedom from the cycle of birth and death (samsara) they must actually experience the death of the physical body in order for the enlightened soul to escape the physical bondage holding it to this place of existence. Only at the point where there is no physical bondage polluting the soul can it attain the Ultimate Reality which is Brahman (Mishra 293-297). Though this key aspect which varies in schools, there are more similarities than not regarding samsara and the attainment of Moksa or Jivanmukti. Attainment of Brahman liberation in mostly performed in the renouncer stage (sannyasa) of Hindu life. The renouncer is one who practises a solitary path conducive to self-realization. Through the ritual performance of multiple Yogic practises [For a more in depth look at various forms of Yogic rituals see Fort (1998)], especially that of Jnana Yoga, a renunciate is able to still one’s passions and attain a form of Nirvana liberation (Indich 108-112). The mind is cleared and kept clear by meditation. The Yogic actions are performed to purify both the body and the mind, freeing one from conscious and unconscious attachment. Through this continued practise one is able to completely withdraw into a meditative state required to attain and maintain a state of a Jivanmukti (Fort 79-83)

Jivanmukti is possible because after the onset of knowledge the body still persists. The persistence of the physical body after the release of the soul is for the purpose of being given the opportunity to teach those who have yet to experience Brahman. A Jivanmukti is said to be actionless in that there is no residual effect from actions, for actions are not performed due to desire-seeking, for a Jivanmukti cannot have a desire when everything that may have been wanted has already been fulfilled, thus leaving all acts performed for the purpose of example setting or maintenance of the body (Shah-Kazemi 110). Through liberation one is able to remove the cosmic principle which is the cause of world illusion (avidya), though a trace of this illusion persists through the continued existence of the physical body. Though as a body in time will be extinguished, all traces of avidya will fade as well (Chari 170). The body-soul relationship of a Jivanmukti was likened in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisads as that of a sloughed off skin and the remaining body of a snake, it is a housing which has been cast off and discarded, yet still exists in the physical universe (Fort 23). Sankara worded the continued existence a bit more eloquently in the overall loss of karmic experience in the transition to liberation. There are three forms of karma which a non-liberated individual is affected by: karma which has been accumulated throughout past existence, accumulating to one’s total cosmic debt (sancite), instant karma which is created in one’s current life time, which may be added to and worked on through daily action (kriyamana) and the portion of sancite karma being worked upon in one’s current life time (prarabdha). When looking into forms of karma, sancite and kriyamana karma respectively deal with actions performed in the past which have yet to affect the present; and actions performed in the present which have yet to affect the future (Indich 110-111). When one experiences Brahman these two karmas are burned away in the fires of knowledge (jnana). Because prarabdha is solely working away at a past life’s karma its path will not be affected by jnana and so it remains even throughout liberation (Indich 110-111) and will remain until “final peace”, being the death of the physical body in which the Jivanmuki remains alive and is then subject to the unfolding of their prarabdha karma (Shah-Kazemi 213). In the Advaitic teachings Moksa is what is considered to be the final release; Moksa allows for the state of omniscience to manifest completely when the spirit is no longer bound by karma (Chari 172-173).

 

 

REFERENCES AND FURTHER RECOMMENDED READING

Fort, Andrew O (1998) Jiivanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Sharma, Arvind (2004) Advaita Vedanta. New Dehli: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Ltd.

Mishra, Kamalakar (1999) Kashmir Saivism: The Central Philosophy of Tantrism. New Dehli: Sri Satguru Publications.

Indich, William M (1980) Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta. Columbia: South Asia Books

Shah-Kazemi, Reza (2006) Action and Prarabdha Karma. Paths to Transcendence: According to Shankara, Ibn Arabi, and Meister Eckhart. Bloomington: World Wisdom, Inc.

Chari, Srinivasa S. M (1976) Advaita and Visistadvaita: A Study Based on Vedanta Desika’s Satadusani. New Dehli: Motilal Banarsidass.

 

Related Topics for Further Investigation

Atman

Bhagavad Gita

Bhakti Yoga

Bhamati

Brahman

Darsana

Deep Sleep

Dhyana

Dreaming

Jiva

Jivanmukti Yoga

Karma Yoga

Maya

Neo-Advaita

Neo-Dualism

Neo-Vedanta

Nine Schools

Parinama-Vedanta

Prasthanatrayi

Shankara

Vairagya

Vivarana

Waking State

Yoga

 

Noteworthy Websites Related to the Topic

http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/moksha/moksh_10.html

http://beyond-advaita.blogspot.ca/2010/02/jivanmukti-and-videhamukti.html

Advaita is Simple

http://www.stillnessspeaks.com/advaita_vedanta/

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Complete_Works_of_Swami_Vivekanana

http://www.bergen.edu/phr/121/ShankaraGC.pdf

http://www.stillnessspeaks.com/sitehtml/jamesswartz/advaita1.htm

 

Article written by: Laura York (April 2013) who is solely responsible for its content.

Swami Chidvilasananda

“Gurumayi’s striking beauty rivets attention wherever she goes…[H]er energy seems inexaustible. Her grace, delightful wit, and respectful regard for the needs of each devotee have expanded Siddha Yoga’s appeal beyond what even Muktananda achieved.” (Brooks 136)

 Swami Chidvilasananda, often referred to as Gurumayi Chidvilasananda or simply Gurumayi is the current leading guru of Siddha Yoga. Gurumayi is a female Guru, who was born in India, who now resides in the United States of America. After studying yoga under the leadership of her own guru Swami Muktananda, she became the head guru of Siddha Yoga when he passed on his title to her in a five day fire ceremony called a yajna; which was celebrated during the time of his birthday in 1982 [Swami Muktanananda passed away later in that same year]. (Caldwell 27) Siddha Yoga is a form of yoga that is very much about finding energy inside one’s soul and discovering personal inner peace through meditation and connection with their guru.

Siddha Yoga has become a major trend in North America, and the SYDA or Siddha Yoga Dham of America that was created by Swami Muktananda, and has been carried on by Swami Chidvilasananda, is a non profit organization that has dealt with a great deal of controversy (Harris 92). Siddha Yoga’s claim to fame is an extremely intense meditative state known as guru”shaktipat“. Shaktipat is described as a cosmic orgasm that one feels after they connect with their guru (Neimark 60). There has been a great deal of controversy surrounding the practice of Siddha Yoga, and the gurus that lead this spiritual activity. There is much controversy surrounding how much money the SYDA appears to have. The SYDA owns more than three hotels worldwide and has a variety of wealthy celebrity followers (Harris 92). Some have gone so far as to call it a cult; others have questioned the sexual integrity of the gurus; however there are valid arguments on both sides of the spectrum. Some criticize Swami Chidvilasananda of not living a truly pure and holy life; claiming that she, and other Siddha Yoga Gurus are simply concerned with money and fame, and others regard her as one of the most powerful and influential yogic gurus of her time.

Born in Mumbai India in 1955 under her given name Malti Shetty, Gurumayi experienced shaktipat at the age of fourteen and at age fifteen began studying under her guru Swami Muktananda. She moved to the ashram (a hermitage in which she studied religion and yoga) to study yoga seriously. Swami Chidvilasananda accompanied her Guru on many tours as his English translator, and in 1982, both Shetty and her brother, Subhash Shetty were appointed to be the successors of their guru; however in 1985 her brother stepped down, leaving Gurumayi to be the sole successor of Swami Muktanananda or Baba, as he was called by his students and devotees. [Baba meaning father.] Some have criticized Gurumayi for the “falling out” that she had with her brother, claiming that it is not spiritual or holy to have a relationship fall apart, and that it is just as it is in secular life; criticizing the way she dealt with the situation (Healey 12). Gurumayi is the current Guru of Siddha Yoga, which has two main ashrams for people to learn the practices in; one in India, and one in New York. There has been controversy surrounding the practice of Siddha Yoga, claiming that it has a likeliness to that of a cult-like religion, (Healey 5) however Gurumayi’s students seem to feel a deep appreciation for the fact that she not only lives her life purely, but truly tries to bring her teachings into every day-to-day life. She has many interactions with her students and spends a great deal of time with them to offer guidance and teachings (Brooks 159). Gurumayi is known for her kind heart, and her caring attitude towards all human beings. Her students respect her greatly and put her at the center of their spiritual lives. (Brooks 136). Siddha Yoga places emphasis on self-evaluation and tries to eliminate personal negativity, and negative tendencies within one’s life.

The practice of Siddha Yoga was first introduced to the West in 1970 by Swami Muktananda during his first excursion out of India. Siddha Yoga, the word Siddha meaning perfect master (Healey 6) is a practice of yoga in which its main purpose is to achieve shaktipat through the guidance, chants and presence of a Guru. Shaktipat is the ancient method of awakening the kundalini energy, which creates enlightenment at the base of the spine, and sends the body into an orgasm-like state, that causes the body to shake and pulsate upon achieving this sacred energy. When people experience shaktipat through the practice of Siddha Yoga they lose all control over their physical selves, often screaming, pulsating, or physically moving around the room. This energy can only be achieved through the presence and touch of the Guru; and through shaktipat it is said that one can truly achieve self-realization and Atman. Contrary to controversy about Siddha Yoga and its sexual nature; it is said that if one finds a true guru, one who is fully devoted to the art of Siddha Yoga, that it is not about sexual pleasure, but about losing touch between the inner and outer self, and experiencing a more divine power and ecstasy. Achieving shaktipat is said to be the feeling of “seeing the Divine in different forms” (Tymn 180). Gurumayi herself said that “When you experience it, you see light everywhere, you find joy in everything. You experience happiness in times of happiness, but you are also able to experience happiness in the midst of sorrow. This is the greatness of meditation.” (Chidvilasananda 46)

Another important aspect of Siddha yoga is the importance that its devotees place on grandiose ceremonies, such as yajnas. Yajnas are extremely important and have helped to characterize Siddha Yoga. Swami Chidvilasananda holds yajnas many times a year, that attract Siddha Yoga students and Brahmins from all around the globe. Brahmins travel from India to attend Swami Chidvalasananda’s yajnas, as months of hard work and preparation go into preparing for them. During these sacred fire ceremonies, Gurumayi sits and observes, while Brahmin priests adorn her with garlands and perform sacred rituals. Gurumayi holds herself with great dignity and always puts her position as great Guru first and foremost. (Brooks 135) In Gurumayi’s yajnas food and gifts are offered to the Gods and burned in a sacrificial fire. Yajnas and yoga are said to be alike in the sense that yoga offers sacrifices to the Gods as well; however the fire of the yajna; in yoga is an internal flame. Gurumayi has taught numerous courses in the ashram, which emphasize the importance of sacrifice in ones day-to-day life. She teaches that sacrifice is the secret to fulfilling a pure and whole life. (Brooks 136) Love, peace, patience and self awareness are very important aspects of Siddha Yoga, often taking a great deal of time and inner reflection to truly master.

Gurumayi places a great amount of importance on love, calmness, happiness, and inner peace. A young man that attended a retreat led by Gurumayi in Mexico said that “These two weeks were the happiest weeks of my whole life. They gave me a new vision of myself and the world we live in. Never in my life had I experienced so much love, nor did I know that so much love was possible. We just sat down to talk about the day and it was pure ecstasy. Or sometimes we just sat in silence looking at each other and we cried out of love” (Brooks 140). Siddha Yoga focuses on the simplicity of life and helps people to understand what happens within themselves to create pure ecstasy throughout any aspect of life. Another practice that is unique to Siddha Yoga is guruseva which helps a student to gain wisdom by working under the instruction of their guru. The idea of working to gain wisdom is important in Siddha Yoga. For example students of Gurumayi have volunteered to chop vegetables for hours at a time; while chanting throughout the whole process. The idea behind the work is that “unselfish action purifies the mind.” (Brooks 144) Guruseva can take form in any day to day activity; for example washing dishes, doing chores, creating art are all forms of Guruseva. The use of work to diminish ego and create a connection to the gods is extremely important to Siddha Yoga devotees, but only if the work is done with no thought or expectation of reward. The acts of Guruseva must be done selflessly in order to reap its rewards. Guruseva is comparable to the feeling of kundalini in that it creates a deep interior experience. Students who do guruseva experience realizations within themselves, and intense feelings of calmness and love (Brooks 144).

Much of Swami Chivalasananda’s time is spent traveling the globe, spreading the word of Siddha Yoga, through the use of chants, workshops and intensives. There are approximately three hundred Siddha Yoga meditation centers worldwide, located in Europe, North and South America, India and Australia to name a few (Brooks 143). Gurumayi is said to be such a powerful leader of Siddha Yoga, that her devotees do not have to be in her presence to feel her spirit and teachings. Many of her students have seen her through focused and intense meditation. Devotees have said that Gurumayi has appeared in meditation and in dreams where she has provided guidance to them. Many of Gurumayi’s students have felt her presence when she was not physically with them. For example a school teacher in Perth Australia was struggling with a young student’s behavior, when she saw Gurumayi walk through the door and smile lovingly at the boy, giving hope to the teacher (Brooks 147).

Regardless of where Gurumayi is in the world, her presence is honored by her devotees. When she appears at conferences, workshops or intensives often she is greeted with a great amount of emotion and joy from her students.   She works hard to prove that she is a strong leader, and tries to live her life in a way that shows example to her students of how to achieve peace and harmony with ones self. Gurumayi provides a realistic approach to her work in the fact that she also talks about inner turmoil. Siddha Yoga requires personal work and sacrifice to find oneself and she has displayed acts of sacrifice in her own life to teach her devotees.

“Where is heaven? Where is Hell? Within us. Each one can create a heaven, each one can create a hell…Look within. Meditate. It just happens. You find your own joy, you find your own inner peace.” (Chidvilasananda 49)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Caldwell, Sarah (2001) “The Heart of the Secret: A Personal and Scholarly Encounter with Shakta Tantrism in Siddha Yoga” Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, Vol. 5, No.1:9-51

Haruni, Elisa Santos, Ferreira Dourado Rueda, Adriana Amelia Benedito-Silva, Ana Leite De Moraes Ornellas, Felipe Leite, Jose Roberto (2008) “Evaluation of Siddha Samadhi Yoga for Anxiety and Depression Symptoms: a Preliminary Study.” Psychological Reports, Vol. 103, No. 1: 271-274.

Healy, John Paul (2011) “Involvement in a New Religious Movement: From Discovery to Disenchantment.” Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, Vol. 13, No. 1: 2-21

Harris, Lis (1998) “O guru, guru, guru.” New Yorker, Vol. 70, No. 37: 92

Neimark, Jill (1998) “Crimes of the soul.” Psychology Today, Vol. 31, No. 2: 55

Mutananda, Swami and Chidvilasananda, Gurumayi (1991) Meditate. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Durgananda, Swami Muller-Ortega, Paul E Mahony, William K Rhodes Bailly, Constantina Sabharathnam, S.P. (2000) Meditation Revolution: A History and Theology of Siddha Yoga Lineage. Muktabodha Indological Research Institute.

Tymn, Michael E. (2006) “Secrets of Shaktipat.” Journal of Spirituality & Paranomal Studies. Vol. 29, No. 3:179-180.

 Related Topics

PRASAD

Swami Muktananda/Controversy surrounding his practices

Siddha Yoga vs. other forms of Yoga

Gurumayi’s various projects

 Related Websites

http://www.siddhayoga.org/

http://www.siddhayoga.org/gurumayi-chidvilasananda

 

Article written by Jaimee Jarvie (April 2013) who is solely responsible for its content.

Samadhi (Contemplative Absorption)

Samadhi, or contemplative absorption, is the highest state of mental concentration thought possible by Hindus while still existing in the cycle of samsara, and is achieved through yogic meditation. Samadhi is a state undisturbed by all emotions and thoughts originating with the ego, and the achievement of such mental clarity is said to indicate significant progress in one’s meditation practices (Sarbacker 57). Samadhi, literally meaning “together—joining” (Kesarcodi-Watson 79), has been described as the means by which one “goes beyond the human condition” (Eliade 52) and is finally able to achieve the liberation that Hindus ultimately aim for. Some have described the objective of yoga as the development of a consciousness qualitatively different from one’s normal state of mind that is able to thoroughly understand metaphysical truth (Eliade 51); this new consciousness is samadhi. Other terms used to describe this mental state include “enstasis,” “ecstasy,” and “supreme concentration.”

The concept of contemplative absorption was first described as one of the eight limbs of yoga outlined in the Yoga Sutra written by Patanjali, who is sometimes equated with the famed Sanskrit grammarian of the same name, but was probably a different person (Eliade 13). The Yoga Sutra consists of four books, each of which is devoted to a unique topic: “yogic ecstasy,” realization, “miraculous powers” (siddhi) and isolation (Eliade 13, 100). One of the critical features of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra is the description of the eight limbs of yoga as a path to liberation. These eight limbs (astanga) are discipline (yama), restraint (niyama), posture (asana), breath control (pranayama), sense-withdrawal (pratyahara), concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana) and ecstasy (samadhi) (Feuerstein 2002:324). The final three limbs are sometimes grouped together and called “constraint” (samyama) because concentration, meditation and ecstasy are considered phases of a single process of mental deconstruction (Feuerstein 2002:335). Patanjali understands this eight-limbed path of yoga as the path to achieving liberation, more often referred to by him as kaivalya, from samsara or the cycle of rebirth (Kesarcodi-Watson 78). An understanding of the eight limbs of yoga is important to be able to recognize the position of the attainment of samadhi in one’s journey towards liberation from samsara, because it allows one to recognize that samadhi can only be achieved once the turnings of the mind (vrtti) have been restricted through the other aspects of meditation (Feuerstein 2002:335).

The diversity of ways in which samadhi can be experienced is as varied as the multitudes of people who will experience it, and it has been said that no amount of description could convey the nature of this condition (Feuerstein 2002:335-336). However, samadhi can be defined informally (Feuerstein 2002:336) and there are certain generalizations that can be made about the experience of samadhi as a whole. Firstly, those who have actually experienced the various states of samadhi claim that mental lucidity is inherent to the experience, despite some perceptions of the experience as a state of trance or unconsciousness. In fact, spiritual teachers state that any instances in which unconsciousness is a factor cannot be considered a form of enstasis (Feuerstein 2002:335). Samadhi is also said to always include a feeling of “suprawakefulness” and is a progression towards the greater reality or good, despite some critics describing contemplative absorption as a “diminution of consciousness” (Feuerstein 2002:336). Physically, the experience involves bodily rigidity and a cessation of visible breath in the yogi (Feuerstein 1972:27). Other feelings described as associated with this experience of mental ecstasy include wakefulness, a “mood of bliss” or a sense of “pure existence” (Feuerstein 2002:336).

Although the concept of samadhi can be described as a whole, yogis also describe multiple types of samadhi and ways it can be experienced. Patanjali and his commentators differentiated among many types and stages of this supreme form of concentration (Eliade 93). The two varieties of samadhi discussed by Patanjali were samprajnata samadhi, that which is achieved with the assistance of an object or a thought, and asamprajnata samadhi, which is achieved without any relation to a physical or mental aid (Eliade 93). Asamprajnata samadhi is considered to be of a higher level of accomplishment than samprajnata because it is the only means by which one can recover awareness of the transcendental self (purusa) and its eternal freedom (Feuerstein 2002:337). While asamprajnata samadhi is said to exist in only one type, samprajnata samadhi can be experienced in various forms (Feuerstein 2002:336). As one achieves succession through the various stages of samprajnata samadhi, they begin to achieve the capacity for the absolute knowledge that will lead them to the accomplishment of asamprajnata samadhi, the achievement of contemplative absorption without the use of a meditation thought or object (Eliade 100).

Samprajnata samadhi, sometimes referred to as enstasis “with support,” is said to involve an inhibition of all mental functioning with the exception of the portion of cognition that focuses on the object by which samadhi was attained (Eliade 93). There are various forms of this type of samadhi, which bear the designation “coincidence” (samapatti) because the subject and the object on which they meditate are said to coincide (Feuerstein 2002:336). The least complex of these forms is vitarka-samapatti, which is said to occur when the subject unifies himself or herself with the “coarse” aspect of the meditation object (Feuerstein 2002:336). Once the subject is able to end all ideation about the object, they purportedly enter nivitarka samadhi (Feuerstein 2002:336). The next, deeper level of “ecstatic unification,” gurus claim, comes when the meditator is able to understand the subtle aspects of the object and experience themselves on a progressively less different plane of existence with the object. This condition has two forms, which are dependent on whether or not spontaneous thoughts are present. The two forms are reflective (savicara) and suprareflective (nirvicara) ecstasy (Feuerstein 2002:337). According to an interpretation of the Yoga Sutra outlined by Vacaspati Mishra in his work Tattva-Vaisharadi, four additional levels of this unification with the subtle aspects of the object exist. They are: coincidence with bliss (sanandasamapatti), coincidence with “I-am-ness” (sasmitasamapatti), coincidence beyond bliss (nirananda-samapatti) and coincidence beyond “I-am-ness” (nirasmita-samapatti) (Feuerstein 2002:337). Succession through each of the stages is marked by progressive loss of mental awareness as the participant begins to lose access to memory and abandons any attempts at reason or logical thought, accepting that their meditation object cannot be possessed and must be grasped as concrete fact rather than positioned in relation to the rest of the physical world (Eliade 95-96). It is questionable whether the scholar Mishra actually experienced these types of samadhi for himself or whether he inferred their existence, and it must be noted that the adept yogin Vijnana Bhikshu rejected the types of samadhi that Mishra described (Feuerstein 2002:337).

In addition to the types of samadhi discussed in the Yoga Sutra, some gurus have developed their own teachings on the different ways samadhi can be experienced. For example, the spiritual teacher Sri Chinmoy used a system of classification that divided different experiences of samadhi into major and minor types (Chinmoy 257-260) and was based on Vedanta philosophy (Feuerstein 2002:336). This system, listed in order of increasing accomplishment, includes: savikalpa, nirvikalpa, and sahaja samadhi, which Chinmoy claims is the highest state of consciousness achieved by most spiritual masters (Chinmoy 257-260). Other sources explain that the attainment of nirvikalpa samadhi is synonymous with liberation itself (Feuerstein 2002:529), but according to Chinmoy it is the attainment of sahaja samadhi that indicates, “one has become the soul . . . and is utilizing the body as a perfect instrument” (Chinmoy 259). Within each of these levels of consciousness, there are varying “grades” of experience and each of the samadhi can be attained at “higher” or “lower” levels. Chinmoy differentiates between these different types of samadhi based on the varying degrees of consciousness and abilities to interact with the physical world experienced by the participant in each form of contemplative absorption (Chinmoy 257-260). Studying the teachings of gurus can be a very effective means of understanding the multitude of diverse ways that samadhi is experienced. [For information regarding other classification systems of various types of samadhi, consult individual discussions of yoga by spiritual teachers.]

Although some gurus claim that there are no specific methods to attain this supreme form of consciousness (Chinmoy 261), in the Yoga Sutra Patanjali discusses some of the challenges one must overcome in order to achieve samadhi. One of the primary obstacles preventing one’s attainment of supreme consciousness is the interfering mind (Kesarcodi-Watson 85). Certain scholars, such as Ian Kesarcodi-Watson (1982), state that it is difficult to explain the steps leading to samadhi because these steps occur at a level of being that is difficult for rational minds to grasp. The state which samadhi inhabits is considered one where there is no “making;” a state that is difficult to affect (Kesarcodi-Watson 89). However, it is stressed in discussions of this state of supreme consciousness that samadhi cannot be achieved through a mere exertion of will, but rather, requires the subject to empty themselves and become open to the higher reality beyond their own ego (Feuerstein 2002:337). Experts on the subject explain that actions taken to achieve samadhi can be attempted, but there is little to be said about how, or even if, they will work (Kesarcodi-Watson 89) because the extraordinary condition that is samadhi is one for which “there is no reference point in our everyday life” (Feuerstein 2002:336).

 

REFERENCES AND FURTHER RECOMMENDED READING

Chinmoy, Sri (1989) Meditation: Man-Perfection in God-Satisfaction. Jamaica: Aum Publications.

Dasgupta, S.N. (1979) Yoga Philosophy in Relation to Other Systems of Indian Thought. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.

Eliade, Mircea (1975) Patanjali and Yoga. New York: Shocken Books.

Feuerstein, Georg and Jeanine Miller (1972) Yoga and Beyond. New York: Shocken Books.

Feuerstein, Georg (2002) The Yoga Tradition: Its History, Literature, Philosophy and Practice. New Dehli: Bhavana Books & Prints.

Fort, Andrew O. (2006) “Vijnanabhiksu on Two Forms of ‘Samadhi’.” International Journal of Hindu Studies 10 #3 (December): 271-294.

Kesarcodi-Watson, Ian (1982) “Samadhi in Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras.” Philosophy East and West 32 #1 (January): 77-90.

Osho (1976) The Path of Yoga. Pune: Tao Publishing Pvt Ltd.

Sarbacker, Stuart Ray (2005) Samadhi: The Numinous and Cessative in Indo-Tibetan Yoga. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Venkatesananda, Swami (2008) The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.

 

RELATED TOPICS FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION

Asamprajnata Samadhi

Eight Limbs of Yoga

Guru

Nirvikalpa Samadhi

Nirvitarka Samadhi

Sahaja Samadhi

Samprajnata Samadhi

Savikalpa Samadhi

Vitarka-Samapatti

Yoga

Yoga Sutra of Patanjali

Yogi/Yogin

 

NOTEWORTHY WEBSITES RELATED TO THE TOPIC

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samadhi

http://www.expressionsofspirit.com/yoga/eight-limbs.htm

http://religiousbook.net/Books/Online_books/Eco/ecopsychology_35.html

Enlightened Master Acharya Shree Yogeesh explains his understanding of samadhi:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9yySC3ZLwGs

Spiritual Teacher Sri Chinmoy demonstrates his experience of samadhi:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mv0_njLTfy8

 

Article written by Madison Martens (April 2013) who is solely responsible for its content.

Samadhi In Yoga

Samadhi, or contemplative absorption, is the highest state of mental concentration thought possible by Hindus while still existing in the cycle of samsara, and is achieved through yogic meditation. Samadhi is a state undisturbed by all emotions and thoughts originating with the ego, and the achievement of such mental clarity is said to indicate significant progress in one’s meditation practices (Sarbacker 57). Samadhi, literally meaning “together—joining” (Kesarcodi-Watson 79), has been described as the means by which one “goes beyond the human condition” (Eliade 52) and is finally able to achieve the liberation that Hindus ultimately aim for. Some have described the objective of yoga as the development of a consciousness qualitatively different from one’s normal state of mind that is able to thoroughly understand metaphysical truth (Eliade 51); this new consciousness is samadhi. Other terms used to describe this mental state include “enstasis,” “ecstasy,” and “supreme concentration.”

The concept of contemplative absorption was first described as one of the eight limbs of yoga outlined in the Yoga Sutra written by Patanjali, who is sometimes equated with the famed Sanskrit grammarian of the same name, but was probably a different person (Eliade 13). The Yoga Sutra consists of four books, each of which is devoted to a unique topic: “yogic ecstasy,” realization, “miraculous powers” (siddhi) and isolation (Eliade 13, 100). One of the critical features of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra is the description of the eight limbs of yoga as a path to liberation. These eight limbs (astanga) are discipline (yama), restraint (niyama), posture (asana), breath control (pranayama), sense-withdrawal (pratyahara), concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana) and ecstasy (samadhi) (Feuerstein 2002:324). The final three limbs are sometimes grouped together and called “constraint” (samyama) because concentration, meditation and ecstasy are considered phases of a single process of mental deconstruction (Feuerstein 2002:335). Patanjali understands this eight-limbed path of yoga as the path to achieving liberation, more often referred to by him as kaivalya, from samsara or the cycle of rebirth (Kesarcodi-Watson 78). An understanding of the eight limbs of yoga is important to be able to recognize the position of the attainment of samadhi in one’s journey towards liberation from samsara, because it allows one to recognize that samadhi can only be achieved once the turnings of the mind (vrtti) have been restricted through the other aspects of meditation (Feuerstein 2002:335).

The diversity of ways in which samadhi can be experienced is as varied as the multitudes of people who will experience it, and it has been said that no amount of description could convey the nature of this condition (Feuerstein 2002:335-336). However, samadhi can be defined informally (Feuerstein 2002:336) and there are certain generalizations that can be made about the experience of samadhi as a whole. Firstly, those who have actually experienced the various states of samadhi claim that mental lucidity is inherent to the experience, despite some perceptions of the experience as a state of trance or unconsciousness. In fact, spiritual teachers state that any instances in which unconsciousness is a factor cannot be considered a form of enstasis (Feuerstein 2002:335). Samadhi is also said to always include a feeling of “suprawakefulness” and is a progression towards the greater reality or good, despite some critics describing contemplative absorption as a “diminution of consciousness” (Feuerstein 2002:336). Physically, the experience involves bodily rigidity and a cessation of visible breath in the yogi (Feuerstein 1972:27). Other feelings described as associated with this experience of mental ecstasy include wakefulness, a “mood of bliss” or a sense of “pure existence” (Feuerstein 2002:336).

Although the concept of samadhi can be described as a whole, yogis also describe multiple types of samadhi and ways it can be experienced. Patanjali and his commentators differentiated among many types and stages of this supreme form of concentration (Eliade 93). The two varieties of samadhi discussed by Patanjali were samprajnata samadhi, that which is achieved with the assistance of an object or a thought, and asamprajnata samadhi, which is achieved without any relation to a physical or mental aid (Eliade 93). Asamprajnata samadhi is considered to be of a higher level of accomplishment than samprajnata because it is the only means by which one can recover awareness of the transcendental self (purusa) and its eternal freedom (Feuerstein 2002:337). While asamprajnata samadhi is said to exist in only one type, samprajnata samadhi can be experienced in various forms (Feuerstein 2002:336). As one achieves succession through the various stages of samprajnata samadhi, they begin to achieve the capacity for the absolute knowledge that will lead them to the accomplishment of asamprajnata samadhi, the achievement of contemplative absorption without the use of a meditation thought or object (Eliade 100).

Samprajnata samadhi, sometimes referred to as enstasis “with support,” is said to involve an inhibition of all mental functioning with the exception of the portion of cognition that focuses on the object by which samadhi was attained (Eliade 93). There are various forms of this type of samadhi, which bear the designation “coincidence” (samapatti) because the subject and the object on which they meditate are said to coincide (Feuerstein 2002:336). The least complex of these forms is vitarka-samapatti, which is said to occur when the subject unifies himself or herself with the “coarse” aspect of the meditation object (Feuerstein 2002:336). Once the subject is able to end all ideation about the object, they purportedly enter nivitarka samadhi (Feuerstein 2002:336). The next, deeper level of “ecstatic unification,” gurus claim, comes when the meditator is able to understand the subtle aspects of the object and experience themselves on a progressively less different plane of existence with the object. This condition has two forms, which are dependent on whether or not spontaneous thoughts are present. The two forms are reflective (savicara) and suprareflective (nirvicara) ecstasy (Feuerstein 2002:337). According to an interpretation of the Yoga Sutra outlined by Vacaspati Mishra in his work Tattva-Vaisharadi, four additional levels of this unification with the subtle aspects of the object exist. They are: coincidence with bliss (sanandasamapatti), coincidence with “I-am-ness” (sasmitasamapatti), coincidence beyond bliss (nirananda-samapatti) and coincidence beyond “I-am-ness” (nirasmita-samapatti) (Feuerstein 2002:337). Succession through each of the stages is marked by progressive loss of mental awareness as the participant begins to lose access to memory and abandons any attempts at reason or logical thought, accepting that their meditation object cannot be possessed and must be grasped as concrete fact rather than positioned in relation to the rest of the physical world (Eliade 95-96). It is questionable whether the scholar Mishra actually experienced these types of samadhi for himself or whether he inferred their existence, and it must be noted that the adept yogin Vijnana Bhikshu rejected the types of samadhi that Mishra described (Feuerstein 2002:337).

In addition to the types of samadhi discussed in the Yoga Sutra, some gurus have developed their own teachings on the different ways samadhi can be experienced. For example, the spiritual teacher Sri Chinmoy used a system of classification that divided different experiences of samadhi into major and minor types (Chinmoy 257-260) and was based on Vedanta philosophy (Feuerstein 2002:336). This system, listed in order of increasing accomplishment, includes: savikalpa, nirvikalpa, and sahaja samadhi, which Chinmoy claims is the highest state of consciousness achieved by most spiritual masters (Chinmoy 257-260). Other sources explain that the attainment of nirvikalpa samadhi is synonymous with liberation itself (Feuerstein 2002:529), but according to Chinmoy it is the attainment of sahaja samadhi that indicates, “one has become the soul . . . and is utilizing the body as a perfect instrument” (Chinmoy 259). Within each of these levels of consciousness, there are varying “grades” of experience and each of the samadhi can be attained at “higher” or “lower” levels. Chinmoy differentiates between these different types of samadhi based on the varying degrees of consciousness and abilities to interact with the physical world experienced by the participant in each form of contemplative absorption (Chinmoy 257-260). Studying the teachings of gurus can be a very effective means of understanding the multitude of diverse ways that samadhi is experienced. [For information regarding other classification systems of various types of samadhi, consult individual discussions of yoga by spiritual teachers.]

Although some gurus claim that there are no specific methods to attain this supreme form of consciousness (Chinmoy 261), in the Yoga Sutra Patanjali discusses some of the challenges one must overcome in order to achieve samadhi. One of the primary obstacles preventing one’s attainment of supreme consciousness is the interfering mind (Kesarcodi-Watson 85). Certain scholars, such as Ian Kesarcodi-Watson (1982), state that it is difficult to explain the steps leading to samadhi because these steps occur at a level of being that is difficult for rational minds to grasp. The state which samadhi inhabits is considered one where there is no “making;” a state that is difficult to affect (Kesarcodi-Watson 89). However, it is stressed in discussions of this state of supreme consciousness that samadhi cannot be achieved through a mere exertion of will, but rather, requires the subject to empty themselves and become open to the higher reality beyond their own ego (Feuerstein 2002:337). Experts on the subject explain that actions taken to achieve samadhi can be attempted, but there is little to be said about how, or even if, they will work (Kesarcodi-Watson 89) because the extraordinary condition that is samadhi is one for which “there is no reference point in our everyday life” (Feuerstein 2002:336).

 

REFERENCES AND FURTHER RECOMMENDED READING

Chinmoy, Sri (1989) Meditation: Man-Perfection in God-Satisfaction. Jamaica: Aum Publications.

Dasgupta, S.N. (1979) Yoga Philosophy in Relation to Other Systems of Indian Thought. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.

Eliade, Mircea (1975) Patanjali and Yoga. New York: Shocken Books.

Feuerstein, Georg and Jeanine Miller (1972) Yoga and Beyond. New York: Shocken Books.

Feuerstein, Georg (2002) The Yoga Tradition: Its History, Literature, Philosophy and Practice. New Dehli: Bhavana Books & Prints.

Fort, Andrew O. (2006) “Vijnanabhiksu on Two Forms of ‘Samadhi’.” International Journal of Hindu Studies 10 #3 (December): 271-294.

Kesarcodi-Watson, Ian (1982) “Samadhi in Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras.” Philosophy East and West 32 #1 (January): 77-90.

Osho (1976) The Path of Yoga. Pune: Tao Publishing Pvt Ltd.

Sarbacker, Stuart Ray (2005) Samadhi: The Numinous and Cessative in Indo-Tibetan Yoga. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Venkatesananda, Swami (2008) The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.

 

RELATED TOPICS FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION

Asamprajnata Samadhi

Eight Limbs of Yoga

Guru

Nirvikalpa Samadhi

Nirvitarka Samadhi

Sahaja Samadhi

Samprajnata Samadhi

Savikalpa Samadhi

Vitarka-Samapatti

Yoga

Yoga Sutra of Patanjali

Yogi/Yogin

 

 

NOTEWORTHY WEBSITES RELATED TO THE TOPIC

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samadhi

http://www.expressionsofspirit.com/yoga/eight-limbs.htm

http://religiousbook.net/Books/Online_books/Eco/ecopsychology_35.html

Enlightened Master Acharya Shree Yogeesh explains his understanding of samadhi:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9yySC3ZLwGs

Spiritual Teacher Sri Chinmoy demonstrates his experience of samadhi:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mv0_njLTfy8

 

Article written by Madison Martens (April 2013) who is solely responsible for its content.

 

 

The Hatha Yoga Pradipika

The Hatha Yoga Pradipika is one of the most renowned and accessible texts written on the ancient practice of hatha yoga. Believed to have been written in the fourteenth century C.E. by Svatmarama Yogin, speculation surrounds the true authorship of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika since some of its elements coincide with hatha yoga guides attributed to other authors of the time (Burley 6). In the Hatha Yoga Pradipika Svatmarama melds together the practice of raja yoga and hatha yoga. A disagreement persisted in the early yogic scriptures about which form of yoga was more superior to the other, but by combining raja and hatha yoga practices as well as claiming their dependency upon one another in his work, Svatmarama disbanded this dispute (Birch 527). The Sanskrit word hatha originates from its two roots, ‘ha’ and ‘tha’. The root ‘ha’ refers to properties such as “passion, heat, and positivity,” the root ‘tha’ refers to elements like “cool, receptive, and negativity” (Sivananda Radha 3). Hatha is the incorporation of two extremes while yoga (meaning union) is the bringing together of these polarities (Sivananda Radha 3-4). The Sanskrit word pradipika ‘that which sheds light’, when put into a metaphor helps the reader better understand the context of the title and how it refers to shedding light on the subject of hatha yoga (Burley 6). One who practices hatha yoga would be considered a yogi and yogis are the main reader audience of this particular text. The Hatha Yoga Pradipika contains 389 slokas (Sanskrit verses) and is divided into four upadesas or chapters (Burley 7). The first chapter is titled “Asanas”. In this chapter proper etiquette is revealed for the practice of hatha yoga as well as the yoga postures or asanas. “Pranayama” is the title of the second chapter; it includes emphasis on ‘harnessing’ of fundamental energy and elucidates various techniques or kumbhakas of breath retention that can be utilized to achieve this discipline. Svatmarama also includes six different detoxifying acts called karmans that aid the practice of pranayama in this second chapter. The third chapter of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika focuses on the subject of mudras, which are ritual gestures, and the final chapter entitled “Samadhi” centers on the ultimate goal of hatha yoga, the deepest level of meditation (Burley 7). Exploration of this classic text that is a part of the Hindu tradition gives one an understanding of the goals and regimens of the ancient practice of hatha yoga.

Svatmarama outlines in the first chapter of his text various imperative observances that the true yogi must adhere to in order to properly perform hatha yoga. The practice of hatha yoga is explained to be sacred and should be practiced in reverence and secret in order for it to maintain its purity; the full potential of this form of yoga is most accessibly achieved in this way (Svatmarama 4). The fulfillment of the hatha yogi is emphasized as to be completely individual and further instructions of how the practitioner should live and eat, as well as adherences and avoidances is explained to keep their practice on the right path. According to Svatmarama yoga flourishes under acts such as “enthusiasm, openness, courage, knowledge of truth, determination and solitude” and it succumbs to undertakings of “overeating, overexertion, talking too much, performing painful austerities, socializing and restlessness” (6). The first chapter of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika also includes important instructions on the proper execution of asanas or yoga postures. An example of an explanation of an asana called Bhadrasana is as follows: “grasp the feet, which are motionless on their sides, firmly with the hands and remain motionless,” this pose is claimed to be “the destroyer of all diseases” (Svatmarama 26). Enthusiastic, involved practice is emphasized in the first chapter of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika as to be the most important part of the accomplishment of asanas.

The practice of pranayama, according to Burley is the “control of ‘vital force’” (31). This act of harnessing energy is done through techniques of breath retention. The importance of this discipline as outlined in the second chapter of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika is that the result of pranayama is to create steadiness in the yogi and in turn, steadying their hatha yoga practice (Svatmarama 33). Svatmarama in the Pradipika alludes to the philosophy of breath and how it links life and death and highlights the importance of the control of breath (33). The mention of nadis, or vital channels, and ways of controlling them (kumbhakas), aids in the explanation of the process of pranayama (Burley 7). The practice of pranayama is explained to weaken diseases in the body; other techniques that contribute to the wellness of the body are karmans, purifying actions (Svatmarama 38). There are six karmans named in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika: dhauti, vasti, neti, trataka, nauli and kapalabhati. These karmans are for the most part physically trying and Svatmarama even mentions that the practice of them are not recommended by all hatha yogis (Svatmarama 42). Instructions on various kumbhakas through pranayama aim to enable the student of hatha yoga to achieve success in their practice.

The third chapter of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika entitled “Mudras” includes guidelines on various seals or sealing postures. Svatmarama stresses the sacrosanct quality of mudras and that the practitioner must keep them to themselves as something to be revered (Svatmarama 54). Mudras, like pranayama, are to be utilized to prevent disease and bring physical and spiritual well being to the yogi undertaking them. In this third chapter of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, soma ( “the immortal nectar”) is encouraged to be consumed (Burley 23). Along with the encouragement to ingest soma, a significant stress is placed on the importance of the yogi preserving his semen and keeping it within his body. This suggestion is based on the idea that semen is equivalent to life, so in order to avoid death, one must preserve the life or semen within them (Svatmarama 73). These different strategies are resorted to alongside mudras in order to employ authenticity to the hatha form of yoga.

The final chapter of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika concentrates on the final goal of hatha yoga, “Samadhi,” it is the “state of unity” (Svatmarama 85). Samadhi is the collective intention of the yoga practice outlined in the Pradipika. With the combination of the practices of asanas, pranayama and mudras, Svatmarama illuminates the achievement of this deep state of meditation. This last chapter again focuses on the utilization of controlled breath to bring the yogi to their ultimate goal of Samadhi. Svatmarama repeats the importance of blending the practices of raja and hatha yoga gives instructions to follow for the proper execution of sound meditation. The focus for meditation is urged to be placed on nada, which refers to inner sound and leads to absorption of the mind (Burley 99). The Hatha Yoga Pradipika closes on this last speculation on the ultimate goal of its practice.

Yogi Svatmarama’s early work in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika continues to carry on meaning to practitioners of the modern day. The information it expounds in areas of yoga postures (asanas), breathing control techniques (pranayama), sacramental gestures (mudras) and the final goal of realization (Samadhi) gives the reader an explanation of the ancient practice of hatha yoga. Examination and understanding this classic text that is based on the fundamentals of one of the most common forms of yoga creates an interpretation of the mentality or intention attached to the practice of yoga in the Hindu tradition.

 

 Sources Consulted and Bibliography

Svatmarama (2004) The Hatha Yoga Pradipika. Translated by Brian Dana Akers. Woodstock: Yogavidya.com.

Burley Mikel (2000) Hatha-Yoga: Its Context, Theory and Practice. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.

Sivananda Radha, Swami (1987) Hatha Yoga The Hidden Language: Symbols, Secrets, and Metaphor. Porthill: Timeless Books.

Birch, Jason (2011) “The Meaning of hatha in Early Hathayoga.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 131 Issue 4: 527-554.

 

Related Topics for Further Invesitgation

Raja Yoga

Jyotsna

Gheranda-Samhita

Goraksa-Sataka

Siva-Samhita

Tantra

Asanas

Pranayama

Mudras

Samadhi

Kundalini

Shakti

 

Noteworthy Websites Related to the Topic

http://www.mahavidya.ca

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hatha_Yoga_Pradipika

http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/hyp/index.htm

http://www.puroyoga.no/Hatha+Yoga+Pradipika+(en+del+av+pensum).9UFRfQWe.ips

http://jivamuktiyoga.com/teachings/focus-of-the-month/p/hatha-yoga-pradipika-1

 

This article is written by Kwynn Nelson (April 2013), who is solely responsible for its content.

Bhakti Yoga as Described by the Bhagavad Gita

One of the fundamental aspects of Hinduism revolves around the spiritual paths one must take in order to reach a state of Moksa or enlightenment. As Moksha is the ultimate goal for any practitioner of the Hindu tradition, it is obvious that concerns over the correct way to achieve this end are approached in a wide variety of ways. Bhakti Yoga is one such path to achieving enlightenment within orthodox Hindu teachings. Bhakti Yoga, also commonly known as the Path of Devotion, teaches that Moksha is achieved by means of selfless and utter devotion, love, and trust towards a particular deity. Those on the Path of Devotion often listen to stories about God, sing devotional hymns, recite mantras, worship at temples and shrines at the home, and undergo pilgrimages in hopes of becoming closer to God. The word bhakti is made up of two parts, the root bhaj, meaning service and the suffix ktr, which means love. However, bhakti is a very flexible word which also means to be attached to, to be devoted to, or to resort to (Michael 250). Bhakti Yoga is a multi-faceted practice which requires both a commitment to God as well as a commitment to loving fellowship of those around oneself in order to succeed. In order to achieve Moksha following this pathway, one must have a pure devotion to God, as having other desires leaves one incapable of fully devoting themselves to God. Bhakti is additionally dualistic in that the term may describe both the path by which one realizes enlightenment, as well as the ultimate goal of enlightenment itself (Michael 250).

The Bhagavad Gita is a part found within the epic the Mahabharata that introduces the concept of the Yogas [spiritual paths that worshippers may take in order to reach a state of salvation or unification with God]. The Bhagavad Gita takes place during the middle of the Mahabharata, when the third Pandava Arjuna is filled with doubt when forced to fight blood relatives in the war of Kurukshetra. Through the course of numerous philosophical and theological discussions between Prince Arjuna and Krsna, the concepts and application of the Yogas are introduced. Despite the very influential nature and important contents of the Bhagavad Gita, it is not considered Sruti [divine in origin], but as Smrti [remembered verses], as it is a part of the Mahabharata. As the introduction of the Yogas is a foundational aspect of many varying sects of Hinduism, the Bhagavad Gita is still seen as one of the more important Smrti in the Hindu tradition. These spiritual paths have become significantly prominent aspects of the Hindu tradition and in many ways serve to define many of the different sects of Hinduism in the modern day.

The concept of Yoga that was introduced in the Bhagavad Gita specifically refers to the primary ways in which practitioners of Hinduism may achieve unification between themselves and God. There are three main paths that are described within the Bhagavad Gita as ways to achieve enlightenment. The first is Karma Yoga, also known as the Path of Action. This Yoga consists of proper and selfless action, the control or suppression of selfish desires, and providing selfless services to those who require it. The successful completion of these deeds are thought to be transformed into worship. This is best characterized by the saying of Yogaswami of Sri Lanka “All work must be done with the aim of reaching God” (Veylanswami 10). The second path is Jnana Yoga, otherwise known as the Path of Knowledge. This path is based on the attainment of philosophical knowledge and discrimination between what is real and unreal (Veylanswami 10). To attain this knowledge, a combination of listening to scripture, thinking or reflecting upon that scripture, and then deep, meaningful meditation is often the course of action of followers belonging to this path. The ultimate goal of this path is to determine the differences between the real and the unreal, giving one an understanding of their true identity within true reality. Bhakti Yoga is the third path that is seen as a means to salvation, by committing yourself entirely to the love and devotion of a specific deity. [Krsna and Siva are two of the more commonly worshipped deities within the Path of Devotion]. Bhakti Yoga is brought to light in the Bhagavad Gita when Krsna explains to Arjuna that those who manage to remain concentrated on him, worship him with unfaltering faith, are rescued from the cycle of life and death. This escape from the struggle of life and death that Lord Krsna refers to is commonly known as Moksha or enlightenment. A more recently conceived spiritual path that has been gaining significant following in recent history is known as Raja Yoga or the Path of Meditation. The inception of Raja Yoga is not considered to be from the Bhagavad Gita, but from the Yoga Sutras credited to Patanjali. Raja Yoga follows an eight tiered system that focuses on ethical restraint, religious observance, proper posture, breathing control, withdrawal, meditation, and a sense of oneness (Veylanswami 10). These eight features are practiced in hopes of concentrating one’s mental awareness, which is deemed essential to the tradition.

The Yogas that are spoken of in the Bhagavad Gita are in many ways interconnected. A commonly practiced approach to the Yogas is to choose one primary path to follow, while still observing the practices of the other Yogas in a secondary manner. While those who seek Moksha shall undoubtedly lean towards one particular path, true knowledge cannot be attained without at least a fundamental understanding of the remaining paths (Veylanswami 11). An approach to the Yogas that has gained traction recently is undertaking Bhakti, Karma, or Raja Yoga prior to taking Jnana Yoga to ensure that one has a real understanding of what it is that they learn and speak of along the Path of Knowledge. This concept is best illustrated by the words of Swami Vishnudevananda: “Before practicing jnana yoga, the aspirant needs to have integrated the lessons of the other yogic paths—for without selflessness and love of God, strength of body and mind, the search for Self Realization can become mere idle speculation” (Veylanswami 11).

While there is a strong degree of interconnectivity between the varying Yoga pathways, there are a number of fundamental differences between each practice, which inevitably leads to strong differences between the practitioners of each yogic path. The way in which the personality of an individual meshes with the fundamental principles of each path are a strong determinant as to which path an individual will choose. For those who are emotional, Bhakti Yoga is commonly recommended, for the physically active Karma Yoga is frequently suggested, while Raja Yoga is considered most appealing to meditative personalities, and Jnana yoga is deemed best suited for a more intellectual individual (Veylanswami 10). In addition to differences in general doctrine and follower personality, the selection of each Yoga path is also strongly related to the deity that an individual worships. Those who are affiliated with Krsna worship will have different views and affinities towards one path than those who worship Siva. [Vaishnava sects tend to promote Bhakti Yoga for their followers, while some Vedantic sects promote Jnana Yoga as the dominant means of salvation] (Veylanswami 11).

There are many ways in which the Bhakti Yoga path may be followed, with a near infinite number of ways to devote oneself to, unconditionally love, and otherwise worship a deity. Some may choose frequent temple worship as a primary means of connecting with God, while others may feel that the utterance of sacred mantra is the ideal way to worship. As there are many differences between practitioners of Bhakti yoga, naturally there is a large degree of variation within Bhakti yoga itself. These variations may be the result of regional variability, the plethora of deities that are available for worship, or even socioeconomic and social differences that exemplify the traditional caste (jati) and class (Varna) system of Hinduism. These differences are not static, but instead dynamic, changing over time and space. The methodology and frequency of forms of worship change continuously over time.

There are very notable differences when comparing varying sects of bhakti worship. In Bengali Shakta Bhakti yogic rituals are designed to bridle the uncontrolled passion and emotion that followers. The yogic rituals performed are meant to provide appropriate times and places for practitioners to have encounters and experiences with the goddess. In Gaudiya Vaisnava Bhakti, yogic rituals in which worshippers relive mythical and historical occurrences of great emotion are performed in order to increase devotion and provide understanding of the worshipper role that each person has to Krsna or Radha (McDaniel 54). While both of these sects follow the Path of Devotion, they perform different rituals for different purposes. Each of these traditions provides worship to their deity uniquely, in large part to the personality type of those who follow each tradition. Within the Gaudiya Vaisnava tradition, members are taught and perform different ways of serving god. It may be entertaining guests, collecting water, or frequent prayer at a home shrine. A guru is often consulted to teach members what acts they can do to best serve their God, however once these methods have been learned and ultimately perfected over time, innumerable variations may be made to individualize the act of worship (Haberman 133). Thus, we can see variation not only between traditions but within traditions.

While many differences between bhakti traditions are relatively minor, there are occasions where practices can differ wildly from one group to the next; this can best be seen when comparing the diminishing practice of Sahajiya bhakti and the rituals of the Bauls with mainstream Gaudiya Vaisnava traditions. The Sahajiya believe that Krsna and Radha may come down from the heavens and enter the bodies of worshippers. As a result, the Sahajiya perform a sexual ritual so that members may experience the “love” of their deities. The Bauls, a group of wandering singers seek the love of Krsna and Radha and perform rituals involving the ingestion of taboo substances. By making the impure substance pure through the act of the ritual, members hope to become rasika (those who are able to see divine presences) (McDaniel 54). Both the Sahajiya and Baul traditions are subcultures of the Gaudiya Vaisnava bhakti, however the rituals, members, and ideals of the groups are in many ways opposed to one another. Historically, Bhakti Yoga became a popular choice for people to follow due to the open nature of the path. Any who felt that they could devote themselves to God were capable of following the path. This can be seen in the members of the bhakti movement previously in history; the heads of bhakti sects were not just Brahmin males as was custom for other paths, but those of high or low castes, male or female. The language used for bhakti literature such as doctrines and poetry were written not just in Sanskrit but in vernacular languages as well (Rinehart 51). This literature showed a great degree of variability between writers as well as regions; some wrote of gods not only reverently but negatively at times as well, while some questioned the appearances of the gods or their manner of speech (Rinehart 52). The large degree of differences found between traditions of various regions and sub cultures, both modern and historical serves to demonstrate the significant number of different manners in which Bhakti Yoga may be performed. Given the broad backgrounds from which members arise, the large amount of deities that are worshipped, and the incredibly broad manner in which an individual may choose to express his or her devotion to God. It is little wonder that the Bhakti Yoga tradition has become such a broad and encompassing division of Hindu tradition.

 

References and Further Recommended Reading

Bodhinatha Veylanswami, Satguru (2012) “Which Yoga Should I Follow?” Hinduism Today (Jul-Sep): 10-11.

Haberman, David (1988) Acting as a way of Salvation: A Study of Rāgānugā Bhakti Sādhana. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

McDaniel, June (2012) The Role of Yoga in Some Bengali Bhakti Traditions: Shaktism, Gaudiya Vaisnavism, Baul, and Sahajiya Dharma. College of Charleston.

Mehta, Varun (2011) “The Need for Balance in Faith” Hinduism Today (Jan-Mar): 9.

Michael, Pavulraj (2011) Bhakti Yoga in the Bhagavad Gita — An Easy Way for all to Search and find the Will of God. Rome: Pontificia Universita Gregoriana.

Rinehart, Robin (2004) Contemporary Hinduism: Ritual, Culture, and Practice. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.

Rosen, Steven (2010) Krishna’s other song: a new look at the Uddhava Gita. Santa Barbara: Praeger.

Kumar, Shashiprabha (2005) Self ,society, and value: reflections on Indian philosophical thought. Delhi: Vidyanidhi Prakashan.

 

Related Topics for Investigation

Jnana Yoga

Karma Yoga

Samadhi in Yoga

Dharana in Yoga

Krsna/Krishna and Arjuna

Cuntarar/Sundarar

The Bhagavata Purans

The Nayanars/Nayanmars

Ramprasad Sen

Campantar/Sambandar

 

Noteworthy Websites Related to Topic

www.bhagavad-gita.us/chapter-summaries-of-the-bhagavad-gita/

http://www.hinduwebsite.com/devotion.asp

http://www.krishna.com/karma-jnana-and-bhakti-yoga

http://www.indianetzone.com/1/bhakti_yoga.htm

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2002-12-14/edit-page/27319455_1_astanga-bhakti-yoga-yogic

 

Article written by: Andrew Gunderson (March 2013) who is solely responsible for its content.