Category Archives: Other Regions

Kingdom of Champa (Historical Development)

This article will be focusing on the early historical development of the Kingdom of Champa up to the peak of its power which ended in 1000 CE and the Hindu traditions that they inherited through Indianization. The article will start at the beginning of the kingdoms history and what started the initial spread of Hinduism in Champa. This is followed by a brief section on some of the practices that the Cham people adopted from India. It will then turn to a brief history of the earliest Hindu dynasties in Champa and the position of Siva in their society. A history of the Gangaraja dynasty is given along with the place of the caste system in Champa society. Finally, there is a brief history of the Bhrgu Dynasty noting only a handful of members from each dynasty leading up to the point where Champa’s power declined.

The region of modern day Vietnam in 214 BCE was conquered by the Chinese Tsin Dynasty (Majumdar 13). It was not until 192 CE that the local Cham named Kiu-Lien killed the local Chinese official and named himself king of Lin-yi, which laid the foundations for the future Kingdom of Champa (Majumdar 18). It was also by the end of the second century that the Kingdom of Champa had become a highly Indianized state in the region. Before the emergence of Champa, traders from India had travelled through Southeast Asia and Europe. Most Indian trade went to the Roman Empire exchanging exotic products for gold. However, by 79 CE Indian trade to Europe declined dramatically due to the ever growing amount of conflict in the Roman Empire. For this reason Indian trade had been slowly going towards Southeast Asia (Cady 25-28). It is due to this ever growing amount of trade to the region that Indianization occurred in Champa. Unlike the previous period a new development occurred in Indian trade patterns, as traders were then being accompanied by “educated elements capable of spreading the religions and arts of India, and the Sanskrit language” (Coedes 15) for the first time (Coedes 15). The traders brought with them Indian colonists which changed the structure of the society through the intermarriage of Indian and Cham peoples. The Cham adopted the new culture, religion and language that the colonists brought, which resulted in a cultural fusion of the Indians and the Chams (Majumdar 21). It should be noted that it was mostly the societal elite of the Chams that took in the new teaching and used the Hindu ceremonies to legitimize their rule (Mabbett 144).

It is clear from this point onward that certain Hindu traditions and cultural practices were used in Champa throughout its history. As in India the cow is considered a sacred animal and beef was not eaten in the Kingdom of Champa (Cady 107). It also appears that the Indian epic called the Ramayana was well known in Champa and in other Indianized states in the region (Marrison 46). Marriage to the Chams is considered a sacred ceremony as it was the foundation of the family. People were also only supposed to marry within their own clan, however, there were no restrictions on marrying into another caste. There is also evidence that when the husband of a high family died the wife joined him in the funeral pyre; this practice is known as sati (Majumdar 226-227). They studied all branches of Sanskrit literature and used the Hindu calendar to determine the dates of special feasts and celebration (Cady 107-108).

The first Hindu dynasty of the Kingdom of the Cham’s was the royal family of Sri Mara which was discovered by translating the Sanskrit Vo-Chanh Rock inscription. The Sri Mara royal family ruled over the Kauthara region located in modern south Vietnam in the second or third century CE. Very little information exists on the early Hindu kings of Champa, save the information provided by Chinese historians (Majumdar 21).  In the late second century, a king of the Sri Mara royal family, and those after him, raided and conquered territory belonging to the Chinese Han Dynasty. Kings of Champa moved further into modern Central Vietnam taking control of Quang-nam (Cady 59). In 380 CE, King Dharma-maharaja Sri Bhadravarman ascended to the throne of Champa and is regarded as the important king of early Champa. He ruled over the provinces of Amaravati, Vijaya and Panduranga provinces, which comprise central and south Vietnam (Majumdar 26-28). It is through King Bhadravarman’s efforts that Champa was fully indianized by the early fourth century (Cady 59-60). Bhadravarman constructed the first sanctuary of Siva called Bhadresvara in Myson, which is named to commemorate the founder. Sanskrit inscriptions of Bhadravarman are the first documentation of the religious origins of the Champa. The inscriptions showed that the cult of Siva-Uma along with the other two gods associated with the Trimurti were dominant in Champa (Coedes 47-49). Siva for a vast majority of Champa’s history has been regarded as the supreme god to which all others submit. This was emphasized by the Puranic literature brought from India. However, there were still several temples and shrines that were erected to worship Brahma, Visnu and other deities associated with Siva (Majumdar 168-172). In the period between 380 and 520 CE the “Cham alphabet” (Hartmann 11), based off Sanskrit, became its own distinctive writing style called akhar patau hayap script (Phan 106).

In 529 CE, after the rise and fall of several Hindu dynasties, the Dynasty of Gangaraja emerged with Sri Rudravarman as its head. This is the first recorded distinction of the Hindu caste system, as an inscription at Myson declares Rudravarman a son of a Brahmin and his “mother’s mother was a daughter of Manorathavarman” (Majumdar 35). This meant his father was of the Brahmin class and his mother was of the Ksatriya class. This started a Brahmin- Ksatriya caste in Champa society, however, in Champa it was considered a subdivision of the Ksatriya class. It is also determined that society was theoretically divided into the four classes, but in practice the Brahmin and Ksatriya were the only classes to existed in society only rarely mentioning the Vaisya or Sudra classes (Majumdar 214-216). It is also clear that the Brahmin in Cham society were not regarded as being of higher status then the king and the state as they were in India (Majumdar 216). During Rudravarman’s reign that the temple of Bhadresvara was destroyed in a great fire (Majumdar 36). It is also in the reign of Rudravarman that the Theravada Buddhism that was known for using Sanskrit language began to spread in Champa (Coedes 59-60). Rudravarman’s successor Sambhuvarman once again continued to raid Chinese territory in the north and the Chinese army retaliated and sacked the northern part of the Kingdom of Champa. In his reign he rebuilt the temple of Bhadresvara and gave it the new name Sambhubhadresvara. (Coedes 70-71). In 653 CE, several kings after Sambhuvarman, King Vikrantavarman took the throne of Champa and began to erect multiple religious buildings in Myson, Tra-kieu, and in areas of Quang-nam. Many of the buildings constructed in southern Champa during his reign were connect to the cult of Visnu, which was popular in the region at the time (Coedes 71 – 72).

In 757 CE the Dynasty of Gangaraja is replaced by the Panduranga Dynasty which was plagued by war and raids from the Javanese (Majumdar 49-55). In 875 CE, Indravarman II who was highly praised, was the founder of the new Bhrgu Dynasty. The dynasty was based in the city of Champapura, which was renamed to Indrapura by Indravarman II (Coedes 122-123). Indravarman constructed the Buddhist temple and monastery to the “Mahayana Buddha” (Coedes 123) called Laksmindralokesvara, which has been identified as the ruins of Dong Duong (Coedes 122-123). At this point the Kingdom of Champa is considered to have been a regional power due to its trade routes that run the length of its shores (Lawler 28). The next notable king of the dynasty was Indravarman III who in 918 CE had a golden statue of the goddess Bhagavati at Po Nagar in the Southern region of Champa (Coedes 124). Indravarman III in several Inscriptions found in Po Nagar is described as being a great scholar, knowing Brahmanical philosophy, Panini’s grammar along with the commentary of Kasika, and the Uttarakalpa of the Saivites (Majumdar 65). After the death of Indravarman III, the history of Champa is very limited as it enters a state of anarchy and war due to external threats. This was mainly due to the rise of the Dai Co Viet directly north of Champa, and the Cambodian kingdoms to the west. The history of Champa is one of decline from 1000 CE to 1471 CE as their territory is conquered by foreign powers (Coedes 124-125).



Cady, John F. (1964) Southeast Asia: Its Historical Development. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book  Company.

Coedès, George (1968) The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. Translated by Susan Brown Cowing. Honolulu: East-West Center Press.

Hartmann, John F. (1986) “The Spread of the South Indic Scripts in Southeast Asia.” Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 3:6 – 20. Accessed February 7, 2016.

Lawler, Andrew (2013) “Inside Hanoi’s Forbidden City.” Archaeology 66:24 – 30. Accessed February 6, 2016. doi:

Mabbett, I.W. (1977) “The ‘Indianization’ of Southeast Asia: Reflections on the Historical Sources.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 8:143-161. Accessed February 28, 2016.

Majumdar, R.C. (2008) Champa: History and Culture of an Indian Colonial Kingdom in the Far  East 2nd – 16th Century A.D.. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House.

Marrison, G. E. (1985) “The Chams and the Literature.” Journal of Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 58:45-70. Accessed February 27, 2016.

Phan, Hao N. (2015) “Cham Manuscripts, the Endangered Cultural Heritage from a Lost Kingdom.” Restaurator 36:101 – 120. Accessed February 7, 2016. doi: 10.1515/res-2014-0019.


Related Topics for Further Investigation

A Broader look at the Indianization of Southeast Asia






The Caste System




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Article written by: Griffin Brown (March 2016) who is solely responsible for its content.

The Majapahit Dynasty

            The Majapahit Dynasty of the Nusantara archipelago was a predominately Hindu empire which arose in approximately 1293 CE and lasted until around 1500 CE (Hunter 28). This empire was a continuation of a previous empire called the Singhasari (Keat Gin 1208). Much of the information surrounding the establishment of this empire is found in the Pararaton, which describes the origins of the first Singhasari ruler Ken Angrok (Johns 92). Ken’s ascension to the throne is depicted as somewhat divine. Ken, in a prior life, is said to have “offered himself as a human sacrifice to Yamadipati, the Javanese door god, in order to save another being from death. . . [and promised] to return to Visnu’s heaven and thereafter be born as a superior being” (Johns 92). The fact that a dynasty is built upon this myth clearly indicates the centrality of Hinduism in Majapahit culture. Furthermore, Visnu’s role in the story prefigures the importance of Visnu worship in Majapahit Hinduism.

The role of Siva in Majapahit religious practice should also be noted. In his next life, Ken was a semi-divine figure— Visnu incarnate. Additionally, he was declared the son of Siva “in order to bring stability and power to Java” (Johns 93). This stability is fundamental to Hinduism and is known as rta. Rta is upheld by dharma (Hindu law) (Koller 133) and yajna (the rituals and rites which maintain and uphold the universe) (Koller 134) [for a detailed explanation on this, see Koller’s article]. Through Siva, Ken Angrok is able to bring balance to his empire. As Visnu incarnate, Ken’s very existence was seen as upholding rta and dharma, even though his behaviour was often undharmic [for an explanation on this behaviour see Hunter 27]. Ultimately Ken Angrok’s monarchy results in the prosperity of the Singhasari and Majapahit Dynasties. In return, the people of these empires worshipped the gods Visnu and Siva so that the dynasty’s prosperity would continue.

Initially, the dynasty was named the Singhasari and was in power until approximately 1292 CE. The Singhasari dynasty ended with the death of Krtanagara after internal political conflict (Hunter 27). Krtangara, the last king of the Singhasari, was a very important figure in regards to Singhasari-Majapahit religion. Krtangara was said to have been both Siva and Buddha incarnate (Hunter 28). This demonstrates the conflation of both orthodox and Buddhist streams of the Hindu religion in the Majapahit kingdom. This reconciliation of Buddhism and Hinduism is clearly seen in the funerary rites of Krtanagara who was deified “in the form of a ‘Siva-Buddha’” (Dowling 120). Furthermore, in practice, the Majapahit recognized the oneness of Siva and Buddha. Dowling’s article includes a poem which aptly demonstrates this by saying “there is no difference between god Buddha and god Si[v]a, the king of gods” (Dowling 120). This veneration of Siva-Buddha would heavily influence later Majapahit religion in the same way that Vaisnavism would.

The fact that Buddha and Siva were conflated in Majapahit Hinduism, reflects the notion that in Hindu thought, though there are many gods, these many gods together form one god—Prajapati creator of the universe. This combining of gods was also done with Visnu and Siva. For instance, in some cases, statues that were half Siva and half Visnu (known as Hari-Hara) would be worshipped as the supreme god (Dowling 121). This is supported by the idea that the first emperor of the Singhasari was Visnu incarnate and the last emperor of the Singhasari was Siva incarnate. Likewise, this amalgamation of gods could also be symbolic of the unity of the Singhasari-Majapahit Empire.

Two years had passed until the dynasty formally became the Majapahit Dynasty. In 1294 CE, Majapahit became the capital city of the former Singhasari Dynasty. The empire itself was restored by Raden Wijaya who assumed the role of king. Wijaya became king of the Majapahit Empire by tricking the Kublai Khan into attacking the city of Jayakatwang. Once the city was conquered and the Kublai Khan was celebrating its victory, Wijaya caught them off guard and “destroyed them” (Hunter 28).

One of the more important literary genres from the time of Raden Wijaya was the Kakawin. The Kakawin genre can be described as containing epic tales with religious themes written in a particular metre (Creese 45). These tales often “draw on the great Indian epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, as well as the rules to prosody and ideals of literary form” (Creese 46). This period, also known as the Kadiri or pre-Islamic period, is noted for its three major sects as referred to in Kakawin literature. These sects were composed of Saivite, Buddhist, and Resi sects, also known as the “Tripaksa” (Hunter 33). Furthermore, each of these religions was supported by each other as if they were one. In his article, Hunter quotes the Kunjarakarma-Dharmakathana which says “the Buddhist monk will surely fail, if he does not know . . . the path to Si[v]a-ness” and that the “master sage who follows the yoga of Si[v]a-ness, will fail if he does not know the highest reality of Jina-ness” (Hunter 33). It almost appears that these three religious sects form a ‘trinity’ of religious practice within the Majapahit Dynasty. Although each one is distinct, they rely and co-depend on each other indicating that the divide between orthodoxy and heterodoxy in the Nusantara archipelago was not as great as that of India.

Political unity appears to have been very important to the early Majapahit (although political unity was not always a reality) as proven by the Tripaksa. Religious compromise, in theory, should prevent disunity and it is conceivable that the early rulers of the Majapahit kept political unity through their efforts to maintain religious unity. By saying that Buddha and Siva were one, the early Majapahit were able to maintain ambiguity about the identity of the state’s religion. Because of the Tripaksa, people could ideally live in harmony because of religion’s unity in the empire.

It was in the 14th century that the Majapahit Dynasty reached the height of its power. This golden age occurred under the monarch Hayam Wuruk, who was monarch from 1350-1389 CE (Noorduyn 207). This golden age was characterized by an influx of art, literature, and Indonesian culture. Furthermore, the king— Hayam Wuruk, was seen by his people as somewhat divine and was worshipped in the same way that the general population worshipped the gods. In one part of the Nagarakrtagama [see Weatherbee 415 for more information on this Majapahit text], Wuruk is compared to the many gods of the Hindu pantheon (Weatherbee 415). As Krom describes Wuruk, he was “vergoddelijkten toestand, eerst bij zijn leven” (that he was in a deified state throughout his life) (Krom 25). Furthermore, it appears that the king’s authority or claim to rule was directly given to him by the Hindu pantheon. In return, the king was to emulate the qualities of these gods. These qualities were known in Java as the astabrata or the eight royal virtues (Weatherbee 414). This notion of astabrata is also emulated in the Ramayana where Rama reminds “Vibhisana that the eight gods are incorporated into that body of the king” and that he should “follow astabrata, pointing out . . . appropriate behaviour of the king” (Weatherbee 414). What this demonstrates is that although there were significant changes and differences between Indian Hinduism and Majapahit Hinduism, there were also many similarities.

Although the intent of political unity by means of religious solidarity was desired by early Majapahit kings, it was not an easily attained goal. The empire declined in the early part of the 15th century because of many different factors. One of the primary factors was a civil war which occurred between the western and eastern parts of the empire (Noorduyn 208). Interestingly enough, it was at this time that Islam began to have a heavy influence on the western coast. From a Hindu perspective, this disunity in the political sphere perhaps led to disunity in the religious world, or vice-versa. Moreover, the undharmic actions of Majapahit kings may have also contributed to the imbalance in rta and thus causing the empire to fall. With this being said, it is important to note that Hindu religious rites and ceremonies continued to endure beyond the decline and fall of the Majapahit. For example, “great Sraddha festivals were still held in 1465 and 1486” (Noorduyn 255), thus demonstrating that though Indonesian Hinduism was central to the Majapahit, it did not die with the empire.

The Majapahit were successful in bringing Hinduism to Indonesia and ensuring its survival for over two hundred years. Although the region is now predominantly Islamic, pockets of Hinduism still exist, particularly in Bali. Much of what is known about the Majapahit reflects its strong Hindu identity. This identity is reflected in both Majapahit literature and art. Furthermore, the deification and veneration of kings as gods or demi-gods reflects the Majapahit practice of conflating political office and the religious sphere. Moreover, the existence of the Majapahit and their strong Hindu identity reflect the reality that Hinduism is not a religion which is confined to the Indian subcontinent. In conclusion, the Majapahit are a sometimes forgotten component to Hinduism; learning from their example helps one understand the totality and scope of the Hindu tradition.



References and Further Recommended Reading

Creese, Helen (1999) “The Balinese Kakawin Tradition, a Preliminary Description and     Inventory.” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Volume 155 No 1, 45-96.

Dowling, Nancy (1992) “The Javanization of Indian Art.” Indonesia, No.54 (October), 117-138.

Hunter, Thomas M (2007) “The Body of the King: Reappraising Singhasari Period Syncretism.” Journal of South East Asian Studies, Volume 38 No. 1(February), 27-53.

Johns, Anthony H. (1964) “The Role of Structural Organisation and Myth in Javanese     Historiography.” The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1 (November), 91-99.

Keat Gin, Ooi (2004) Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East            Timor. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.

Koller, John M (1972) “Dharma: An Expression of Universal Order.” Philosophy East and West,
Volume 22, No.2 (April), 131-144.

Krom, N.J, and Krom, N.G (1919) “De Begraafplaats van Hayam Wuruk” Bijdragen tot de Taal  Land- en Volkenkunde, Deel 75 1ste/2e Aflevering, 25-27.

Noorduyn, J (1978) “Majapahit in the Fifteenth Century.” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en         Volkenkunde, Deel 134 2e en 3e Aflevering, 207-274.

Weatherbee, D.E (1994) “The Aṣṭabrata, Saptadewawṛtti, and Nāgarakṛtāgama VII:1-2.”
            Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Deel 150 2de Aflevering, 414-416.*
Related Topics for Further Investigation
Java (island)
Ken Angrok
Kublai Khan
Majapahit (city)
Raden Wijaya
The Pararaton
The Singhasari Dynasty

Noteworthy Websites Related to the Topic

Article written by: Jordan Born (April 2013) who is solely responsible for its content.

The Sanjaya Dynasty

The Sanjaya Dynasty was a Hinduism-based dynasty which existed in the central region of the modern day Island of Java, Indonesia (Kartaksuma 407). According to the Canggal Inscription, which was found on the slopes of Merbabu Mountain, the Sanjaya Dynasty was founded by King Sanjaya, Lord of Mataram, in approximately 732 CE (Kartaksuma 407-408). According to the inscription, Sanjaya came to power in central Java following the death of the previous king, Sanna, which left the region in a state of confusion (Van Der Muelen 30).  Sanajaya was able to restore order, and encouraged the worshipping of Hinduism in the region. The Cangall inscription contained King Sanjaya’s lingga, which was a representation of the Hindu god Siva, as well as praises of the deities Brahma and Visnu (Van der Muelen 18). This inscription showed that King Sanjaya was an active Hindu, and promoted the religion’s worship during the dynasty’s era. Following the death of King Sanjaya, there were 5 more kings who ruled in the Sanjaya Dynasty: Panangkaran, Rakai Warak, Rakai Garing, Rakai Pikatan, and lastly, Balitung, who died in 910 CE (Van der Muelen 30). The dynasty came to an end largely due to a migration out of central Java towards eastern Java, and it has been speculated that a major earthquake, which caused the eruption of a volcano in the area, led to this migration (Royo 138).

It was likely upon leaving Mataram and entering Eastern Java that those who were once ruled by the Sanjaya Dynasty were integrated into whichever kingdom they settled in, thus effectively ending the dynasty. It is also fair to assume that the Dynasty’s rule was likely weakened prior to this migration, thus not allowing it to take over the region migrated to, nor keep its lower-class under its rule. Lord Sanjaya himself had moved his palace several times and was able to move his Kraton (ruling city) during his rule and still maintain power, thus showing that a strong ruling class might have prevented the dynasty from ending (Van der Muelen 19).

Important to the development of this dynasty was the development of another, the Sailendra Dynasty, which followed Mahayana Buddhist principles. It appears as though these two dynasties competitive rivals, whose competing interests in the region which evidently led to conflict (Kartaksuma, 410). These two dynasties had family ties, specifically King Sanjaya, who had relations to members of the rival dynasty (Van der Muelen, 18). However, these relations eventually came to blows on 856 CE, when the Sanjayas defeated the Saliendras in a battle on the Ratubaka Plateau (Hall 354). During the time then, it would be fair to assume that this rivalry headed the spread of both Hinduism and Buddhism in Java. Interestingly, this rivalry between the two distinct dynasties represented two religions that, in current Indonesia, reflect less than five percent of the population. This rivalry also produced two of Indonesia’s most well-known and recognizable architectural structures: The Hindu Prambanan temple, and the Buddhist Borobudur.

The Prambanan temple was constructed during the rule of the Sanjaya Dynasty, and is a one of the only representations of the Sanjaya Dynasty which can still be seen today. Built approximately during the eighth to ninth century, the complex had over 200 temples within it strictly devoted to Hindu deities (Royo 137-138). Specifically, the Sanskrit epic, The Ramayana, was depicted throughout the complex, but representations were “given their own life and form in classical Indonesia” (Poortenaar 55). This temple was built about a half century after another major religious monument, Borobudur, was constructed by the rival Sailendra Dynasty (Poortenaar, 55). This rivalry can perhaps be used to explain why central Java has the highest concentration of Hindu and Buddhist temples on the Island. The temple itself was largely abandoned towards the end of the Sanjaya Dynasty in the mid-tenth century when the kingdom moved east (Royo 137-138). The complex also faced major damage in the 16th century when it was struck by another earthquake, and remained largely abandoned until it was rediscovered by Sir Stanford Raffles in the 19th century, leading to restoration attempts and eventually mass reconstruction of some of the temples, thus giving it a look which is believed to be fairly historically accurate (Poortenaar 55). It is considered to be one of the most eccentric and obvious symbols of Hinduism in Java, representing a time when Hinduism was hugely important to the region. This can be contrasted with today, where Hinduism is largely an isolated religion to the area, concentrated on the Island of Bali (Poortenaar 56).

It would seem then, that the Prambanan complex, which was designated a UNESCO world heritage site in 1991, is more acknowledged for its historical significance, rather than for its significance to the current religious landscape in Indonesia. According to a 2001 census, Muslims form the dominant religious group in Indonesia at 86.1%, followed by Protestants, Roman Catholics, unspecified groups, and Hinduism at 1.8% (CIA World Factbook). By these statistics, it can be seen that Hinduism only has a small minority of followers in the country. However, political conflict and tension in the 1960’s led the Indonesian government to declare five religions as officially state recognized: Islam, Catholicism, Protestant Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism (Hefner 97). This official state recognition, along with conversions in the Java region, have helped Hinduism grow in regions which previously had no history of Hindu tradition and worship (Hefner 93). This is important, if only to show that while Hinduism does not have the significant following it had during the Sanjaya dynasty, it does receive state recognition and even funding despite the fact that it only has a fairly small following when compared with other religions in Indonesia.

The Sanjaya Dynasty then, can be seen as a specific era during which Hinduism was openly worshipped and practiced. Indonesia today is known for its massive Islamic population, but perhaps the Sanjaya dynasty and specifically, the Prambanan complex temples which it left behind, can serve as a reminder of the once thriving Hindu culture that dominated the Island of Java in the eighth to tenth century.


C.I.A World Factbook (2011) Indonesia. Retrieved from publications/the-world-factbook/geos/id.html.

Hall, D. G. E. (1965) “Problems in Indonesian Historiography.” Pacific Affairs 39(3/4) 339-348.

Hefner, Robert W (2004) “Hindu Reform in an Islamizing Java: Pluralism and Peril.” In Ramstedt, Martin (Ed) (2004) Hinduism in Modern Indonesia: A Minority Religion between Local, National, and Global Interests. New York: Routledge-Curzon.

Kartakusuma, Richadiana (2006) “The Influence of Hindu-Buddhism on Javanese Culture and Society: Some Historical Notes from Selected Sources.” In Truman Simanjuntak (Ed) Archaeology: Indonesian Perspective. Jakarta: LIPI Press.

Poortenaar, Jane (2009) “Viewing the Borobudur. In Hellwig, Tineke & Tagliacozzo, Eric (Eds)  (2009) The Indonesian Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Durham: Duke University Press.

Royo, Alessandra Y Lopez (2003) “Dance in the 19th Century Java: A Methodology for the  Analysis and Reconstitution of Dance. The American School of Oriental Research, 66(3)   137-139.

Van der Muelen (1979) “King Sanjaya and His Successors.” Indonesia, 28(Oct), 17-54.

Additional Readings

Briggs, Lawrence Palmer (1950) “The Origin of the Sailendra Dynasty: Present Status in Question.” Journal of American Oriental Society, 70(2), 76-89.

Briggs, Lawrence Palmer (1950) “The Origin of the Sailendra Dynasty: Additional Note.” Journal of American Oriental Society, 72(1), 37-39.

Hall, D.E.G (1966) “ Recent Tendencies in the Study of Early Modern History of South-East Asia.” Pacific Affairs, 39(3/4), 339-348.

Hefner, Robert W (1985) Hindu Javanese: Tengger Tradition and Islam. Princeton New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Soekmono, R (1967) “A Geographical Reconstruction of Northeastern Central Java and the Location of Medang.” Indonesia 4(Oct), 1-7.

Related Subjects

Sailendra Dynasty


The Canggal Inscription

Carita Parahyangan

Kakawin Ramayana

Candi of Indonesia

Noteworthy Websites Related to Topic\

Article written by Brad Robertson (Spring 2012), who is solely responsible for its content.